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WORLD HISTORY LINKS
Scientists and Islamic
History on the Internet - Kingdoms and Ancient Civilizations
MindStation X : Renaissance
Dr. Ivan Van Sertima
Italy - Italian Renaissance - Zoological studies
Re: For Sale: A DNA Test to Measure Racial Mix
Africans in Early Europe
The TRUE Black History Home Page
Crusades, Christianisation, and Colonisation West Africa
Greaves: Documenting The Truth In Film - Global Black News ...
African Contributions to World History
Sephardim and their History
The Iberian Golden Age, European Expansion
of Islamic Intolerence by Mark Silverberg
African American and Ancient Egyptians
ANCIENT AFRICA AND EARLY ROME
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Chapter II
Great Homepage of Alexander, or
Something Like That
Alexander The Great - Links
Alexander the Great on the Web
the Great History Project
Alexander was Great
The Third Great Race War: The Moors
History Timelines on the Web ... The History
Information and facts about Cleopatra
History of Alexandria: Cleopatra
Cleopatra - Last Pharaoh of Egypt - Queen
Raising the lost city of Cleopatra
House of Ptolemy: Caesar, Cleopatra, & Marcus Antonius THE
KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND
The Moors in Europe
Latin American Muslim Unity: History of Islam in Latin America
Adolf Hitler Mein
Kampf by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler Table of Contents
Hitler's Jewish Soldiers
Adolf Hitler and The Holocaust
Hitler Was Not An Atheist
HITLER A ROTHSCHILD
The controversy of the occult reich
WALL STREET AND THE RISE OF HITLER
African Timelines Part II
Death of Hitler: The Full Story with New Evidence from Secret Russian Archives
Hitler's Rise to Power
The OMEGA File : HITLER ESCAPED
Henry the Navigator
Dr Edward Scobie: African Presence in Early Britian: Dominica political figure
The African Presence in the Americas many centuries before Columbus
Zulu Appropriation of the Imperial: The Imperial, The Colonial, and the
creation of "White" Power
Great Boer War by Arthur Conan Doyle 1
HISTORY OF THE WORLD - NI 196 - Carving up the world
386: The Military and War in America--Lecture Outlines
MIND THINKING OF HITLER
Religious Beliefs and Fanaticism
1800's: 1800s timeline
Future Of African Gods: The Clash Of Civilizations
WHO ARE THE REAL LATINOS
OR SO CALLED LATIN PEOPLE
THE CONCEPT OF LATINO IS RACIST
Remember that there is no such thing as a "Latin" nation, race, or
ethnic group---there is only the racist colonial term of "Latin
America" ("Latino" just means Latin in Spanish) which refers to the
colonialists and the colonial possessions of the Europeans of
southern Europe (Spaniards, Portuguese, and French) in the "Western
Hemisphere" (our land). The only thing "Latin" about our land is the
500 years of racist colonialism that has killed 95% of our
population, and the theft of our land and its wealth.
"Latino" denies us our true Nican Tlaca (Indigenous) identity and
heritage. It keeps us slaves to European interests and Spaniard
Collectively, we have no Latin genealogy, Latin blood group, Latin
history, or a common Latin culture of food or mythology.
The "Latino" labeling of our people is a colonialist-racist act of
Genocide---an attempt to "kill off" our people's true identity,
history, independence, and our rights to our land and its wealth.
Notice how this is not about "Latino Americans" in the U.S. This is
about all of the "Spanish speaker" European Spaniards and their
colonies of Nican Tlaca and Africans in the "Americas". What they
are in fact doing is separating us from our Anahuac Heritage
(Mexican and "Central American" Nican Tlaca identity and history)
and enslaving us to their needs.
THE CONCEPT OF HISPANIC
is even more racist than "Latino" because it completely denies us
our true Nican Tlaca heritage by not even referring to our colonized
condition of being in "Latin America". We now become direct
possessions of Spaniards. This is an attempt (successful so far) to
actively reactivate the Spanish colonial empire through their
colonials on our land. The media is their main tool in this
parasitic renewed colonialist machine of the European Spaniards.
A side note: A
Mixed-blood is not a Criollo or a European.
Spaniards, Europeans, And
Their Squatter Descendants On Our Land Who Force Their Eurocentric,
Racist, & Anti-Indigenous "Hispanic" & "Latino" Labels On Our
Eurocentric, Racist, & Anti-Indigenous Cuban-Miami Television &
Mexico City Criollos (White People) Who Control Our Knowledge,
Identity & Future!
Eurocentric, Racist, & Anti-Indigenous Concepts of "Mestizo" & "Raza"
That Enslave Our People To European Interests & Identities!
The Europeans And Their Descendants Who Have Denied Us The Beauty Of
Our True Anahuac Heritage And The Ownership Of The Wealth Of Our
20 MAJOR CRIMES OF THE EUROPEANS
1) THEFT OF OUR LAND was
the initial crime of the Europeans. We did not ever give up
the ownership of our land, nor did we ever invite Europeans
onto our lands.
2) DECEIT AND DISHONOR
by Europeans (along with the violation of our laws) and
their unethical and immoral behavior, were what brought
about their taking of our land, the genocide of our people,
the enslavement of our remaining population, and all of
their uncountable crimes against us.
has been the European method that was used to shock us into
submitting to their control of our land and our lives.
(looting, taking what is not yours to take) has been the
European profession of choice by which they stole our
people's wealth of precious jewels, gold, silver, and other
valuables, along with the wealth of our land.
has been another signature of European barbaric assaults on
our civilization and culture. This defacement was done upon
our physical landscape and upon the psychological well-being
of our people.
of our people (as a prelude to extortion and /or
enslavement) has been a violation of all nations' sense of
decency, law, and civilized behavior.
(usually for gold) from our lands has been
another favorite crime of the Europeans. They mostly killed
their victims, even when ransom was paid.
MURDER OF OUR LEADERS
was a peculiarly vicious and dishonorable ongoing crime of
Europeans. This crime exhibited the total failure of a sense
of honor amongst the Europeans. Deceit was usually involved
in the murder of our leaders.
of unarmed civilian men, women, and children on our lands.
This at first happened in the dozens, then hundreds, and
eventually it led to routine slaughters in the thousands.
of our people became possible when they discovered that they
had built-in biological weapons of mass destruction in their
bodies' exposure to smallpox and other diseases---for which
we had no immune defenses. They used this biological weapon
which was 90 to 98% effective in killing us.
11) TORTURE AND MUTILATION
was initially used to get us to surrender all gold objects
to Europe. This technique was later used by the church to
force conversions and to get confessions out of our people.
12) GRAVE ROBBERY
has been an ongoing habit of Europeans from the beginning.
This was a way of quickly stealing wealth that was not
13) ENSLAVEMENT OF OUR PEOPLE
to do the work that they were too lazy to do themselves, has
been another nasty European habit.
14) DESTRUCTION OF CITIES
to take away our
pride in our heritage, has been an almost totally successful
15) BURNING LIBRARY BOOKS
in the tens of
thousands by Europeans, has been one of the most devastating
crimes that can never be mended or reconstructed.
16) UNIVERSITIES & SCHOOLS DESTROYED
as a means of enslaving us to ignorance and to serving the
interests of Europeans.
17) RACIAL RAPE
of our people defiled us as a nation and
tainted our people with the filth of their racism that says:
More European blood is better.
18) CULTURAL CASTRATION
in which laws were decreed that prohibited our people from
learning our own culture, our languages, or even the
simplicity of having our true names and identity.
19) PROHIBITION OF OUR THEOLOGY
which forced the hypocritical version of Christianity on our
20) CONTINUATIONS OF THESE CRIMES
up to the present day without guilt, reparations, or the
"reality thought" that Europeans were in any way evil or
monstrous in their actions.
Body: QUIENES SOMOS!??
Let's put the movie itself aside for a second and set the record straight
about this one thing we call our "identity". Many people around the world
refer to those of us who come from certain parts of the Carribean,
Central, & South America as "Latin, Latino, Latin American, Hispanic, and
even Spanish". Most of them identify us that way simply out of respect for
"us" because we identify ourselves that way. So i will now take a moment
to STATE THE OBVIOUS.
We ARE NOT, NOR HAVE WE EVER BEEN "Latin"! Point Blank! And I am speaking
here for myself and those like me.
Director, Mel Gibson, gives his staff their "due" respect and shouts them
out in his promotional interviews about the movie by sayin' something like
"behind the scenes and in front of the camera in this film are
Latinos"... Mind you, he is refering to the indegenous peoples of Central
America here. INDIANS for those of us who will only understand it this
I invite you to see this movie, then take a good look at the actors in it
and strip them down to their birthday suits... Then be honest and look at
yourself and your family... and what you will notice is that in the movie
APOCALYPTO you see your mothers, your fathers, your grandmothers,
grandfathers, your aunts, your uncles, your cousins, your nieces, and your
nephews! Just give the sisters a 2007 makeover, and give the brothas a
shapeup, a fitted, some sean jean or rockawear - and you will never tell
the difference, simply because there is NONE! We are the children of the
indigenous peoples of America, as well as Africa and its all over our
children's faces, not to mention our own - and nowhere in precolumbian
America do you find LATINOS! THEY CAME WITH COLUMBUS WHO HIMSELF CAME
FINANCED BY THE SPANISH! THEY WERE OUR CONQUERORS!
Latin was the official language of the Roman Empire which eventually
became what we now know as Spanish, Portuges, French, and YES ITALIAN for
those of you who complain about there being no Latinos in Scarface
("except Manolo")... They were ALL LATINOS, AL PACINO IS ITALIAN... ITALY,
ROME, LATIN! HELLLLLOOOOO! What they weren't, was US!
They invaded Boriken, raped the land of its riches for themselves at our
expence and renamed it PUERTO RICO - so someone please tell me, a Taino
from Boriken where i fit in this to identify myself as a Puerto Rican....
A DOMINICAN is a CATHOLIC PRIEST, one of the many orders of the ROMAN
CATHOLIC CHURCH such as the JESUITS and FRANSISCANS... so someone
tell me how an African and Indian became Dominican.
The same goes for COLUMBIA and a host of others.... even those who kept
their indigenous roots in their names to nevertheless become LATIN
A NOTE TO THOSE WHO STILL BELIEVE THAT THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE
CARRIBEAN WERE WIPED OUT AND AS THE DEFINITIONARIES (DICTIONARIES) USED TO
It does not take any schollarly investigation, research or academia to see
the children and lineage of indigenous peoples in the Carribean... all we
have to do is look in the mirror and/ or take a trip over there and look
at the people there!
Land And Water
GREAT AFRICAN QUEENS
Come experience the power, the glory, the splendor, the
greatness, the intelligence and the beauty of Great African
Queens, the makers and creators of the world first known
QUEEN Of ZARIA (1588-1589)
This queen of Zazzua, a province of Nigeria now known as
Zaria, was born around 1533 during the reign of Sarkin
(king) Zazzau Nohir. She was probably his granddaughter.
Zazzua was one of a number of Hausa city-states which
dominated the trans-Saharan trade after the collapse of the
Songhai empire to the west. Its wealth was due to trade of
mainly leather goods, cloth, kola, salt, horses and imported
metals. At the age of sixteen, Amina became the heir
apparent (Magajiya) to her mother, Bakwa of Turunku, the
ruling queen of Zazzua. With the title came the
responsibility for a ward in the city and daily councils
with other officials. Although her mother's reign was known
for peace and prosperity, Amina also chose to learn military
skills from the warriors. Queen Bakwa died around 1566 and
the reign of Zazzua passed to her younger brother Karama. At
this time Amina emerged as the leading warrior of Zazzua
cavalry. Her military achievements brought her great wealth
and power. When Karama died after a ten-year rule, Amina
became queen of Zazzua. She set off on her first military
expedition three months after coming to power and continued
fighting until her death. In her thirty-four year reign, she
expanded the domain of Zazzua to its largest size ever. Her
main focus, however, was not on annexation of neighboring
lands, but on forcing local rulers to accept vassal status
and permit Hausa traders safe passage. She is credited with
popularizing the earthen city wall fortifications, which
became characteristic of Hausa city-states since then. She
ordered building of a defensive wall around each military
camp that she established. Later, towns grew within these
protective walls, many of which are still in existence.
They're known as "ganuwar Amina", or Amina's walls. She is
mostly remembered as "Amina, Yar Bakwa ta san rana," meaning
"Amina, daughter of Nikatau, a woman as capable as a man.
Contributed by Danuta Bois
EMPRESS OF ETHIOPIA (332 B.C.)
Alexander reached Kemet (Ancient Egypt) in 332 B.C., on his
world conquering rampage. But one of the greatest generals of
the ancient world was also the Empress of Ethiopia. This
formidable black Queen Candace, was world famous as a military
tactician and field commander. Legend has it that Alexander
could not entertain even the possibilty of having his world fame
and unbroken chain of victories marred by risking a defeat, at
last, by a woman. He halted his armies at the borders of
Ethiopia and did not invade to meet the waiting black armies
with their Queen in personal command.
QUEEN OF KEMET (Ancient Egypt the land of the Blacks) (69-30 B.C)
Although known to be of African descent she is still
deliberately portrayed as being white. She came to power at the
tender age of seventeen and the most popular of seven queens to
have had this name. She was also known to be a great linguist
and was instumental in making Kemet(Egypt) into the world number
one super power at that time.
fought against the Arab incursion in North Africa where under
her leadership Africans fought back fiercely and drove the Arab
army northward into Tripolitania. Queen Kahina was of the Hebrew
faith and she never abandoned her religion. Her opposition to
the Arab incursion was purely nationalistic, since she favored
neither Christians nor Moslems. Her death in 705 A.D by
Hassen-ben-Numam ended one of the most violet attempts to save
Africa for the Africans. She prevented Islam's southward spread
into the Western Sudan. After her death the Arabs began to
change their strategy in advancing their faith and their power
in Africa. The resistance to the southward spread of Islam was
so great in some areas that some of the wives of African kings
committed suicide to avoid falling into the hands of the Berbers
and Arabs who showed no mercy to the people who would not be
converted to Islam
QUEEN OF KEMET (Ancient Egypt the land of the blacks) (1503-1482
the greatest queens of ancient Kemet was Queen Hatshepsut. While
she was known as a "warrior" queen, her battles were engaged
with her own rivals for the position of power in Kemetic
hierarchy. A born dynast in her own right, Hatshepsut proved to
be an aggressive and overpowering force. However, it was not in
war, but in her aspiration to ascend to the "Heru (Horus)
consciousness," she displayed the strength that has given
her a place in history. She adopted the Truth of Maat and became
involved in the elimination of undesirable people and elements
from Kemet. Determined to be revered in times yet to come,
Hatshepsut depicted herself in as many masculine attributes as
possible, i.e. male attire, king’s beard, etc. Although she
ascended to the throne upon the death of her king-brother
Thutmose II, she exerted her rightful claim to the throne. In
exercising her power, she involved herself in foreign campaigns,
a concentration on domestic affairs, extensive building and
commercial ventures. The most famous of her commercial ventures
was the Punt expedition in which goods and produce were acquired
from the rich market there to be brought back to Kemet. While it
would appear that her opponents were not antagonistic regarding
her sex, they were so regarding her non-aggressive philosophy.
before becoming legal ruler, Hatshepsut, was actively
pushing things dearest to the hearts of all Africans
leaders: the expansion of foreign trade, international
diplomatic relations, perfection of national defense, vast
public building programs, securing the South and the North
through either peace or war and, one of her "pet projects",
building a great navy for both commerce and war. Her success
on most of these fronts made her one of the giants of the
QUEEN OF SHEBA (The symbol of Beauty) (960 B.C.)
am black but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem, As the tents
of Kedar, As the curtains of Solomon, Look not upon me because I
am black Because the sun hath scorched me." (Song of Solomon)
Although most of Black history is suppressed, distorted or
ignored by an ungrateful modern world, some African traditions
are so persistent that all of the power and deception of the
Western academic establishment have failed to stamp them out.
One such story is that of Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, and King
Solomon of Israel. Black women of antiquity were legendary for
their beauty and power. Especially great were the Queens of
Ethiopia. This nation was also known as Nubia, Kush, Axum and
Sheba. One thousand years before Christ, Ethiopia was ruled by a
line of virgin queens. The one whose story has survived into our
time was known as Makeda, "the Queen of Sheba." Her remarkable
tradition was recorded in the Kebar Nagast, or the Glory of
Kings, and the Bible. The Bible tells us that, during his reign,
King Solomon of Israel decided to build a magnificent temple. To
announce this endeavor, the king sent forth messengers to
various foreign countries to invite merchants from abroad to
come to Jerusalem with their caravans so that they might engage
in trade there. At this time, Ethiopia was second only to Egypt
in power and fame. Hence, King Solomon was enthralled by
Ethiopia's beautiful people, rich history, deep spiritual
tradition and wealth. He was especially interested in engaging
in commerce with one of Queen Makeda's subjects, an important
merchant by the name of Tamrin.1 Solomon sent for Tamrin who
"packed up stores of valuables including ebony, sapphires and
red gold, which he took to Jerusalem to sell to the king."2 It
turns out that Tamrin's visit was momentous. Although accustomed
to the grandeur and luxury of Egypt and Ethiopia, Tamrin was
still impressed by King Solomon and his young nation. During a
prolonged stay in Israel, Tamrin observed the magnificent
buildings and was intrigued by the Jewish people and their
culture. But above all else, he was deeply moved by Solomon's
wisdom and compassion for his subjects. Upon returning to his
country, Tamrin poured forth elaborate details about his trip to
Queen Makeda. She was so impressed by the exciting story that
the great queen decided to visit King Solomon herself.3 To
understand the significance of state visits in antiquity in
contrast to those of today, we must completely remove ourselves
from the present place and time. In ancient times, royal visits
were very significant ceremonial affairs. The visiting regent
was expected to favor the host with elaborate gifts and the
state visit might well last for weeks or even months. Even by
ancient standards, however, Queen Makeda's visit to King Solomon
was extraordinary. In I Kings 10:1-2, the Bible tells us: "1.
And when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of Solomon
concerning the name of the Lord, she came to prove him with hard
questions. "2. And she came to Jerusalem with a very great
train, with camels that bear spices and very much gold, and
precious stones. And when she was come to Solomon she communed
with him of all that was in her heart." I Kings 10:10 adds: "She
gave the king 120 talents of gold, and of spices very great
store and precious stones; there came no more such abundance of
spices as these which the Queen of Sheba gave to King Solomon."
We should pause to consider the staggering sight of this
beautiful Black woman and her vast array of resplendent
attendants travelling over the Sahara desert into Israel with
more than 797 camels plus donkeys and mules too numerous to
count. The value of the gold alone, which she gave to King
Solomon, would be $3,690,000 today and was of much greater worth
in antiquity. King Solomon, and undoubtedly the Jewish people,
were flabbergasted by this great woman and her people. He took
great pains to accommodate her every need. A special apartment
was built for her lodging while she remained in his country. She
was also provided with the best of food and eleven changes of
garments daily. As so many African leaders before her, this
young maiden, though impressed with the beauty of Solomon's
temple and his thriving domain, had come to Israel seeking
wisdom and the truth about the God of the Jewish people.
Responding to her quest for knowledge, Solomon had a throne set
up for the queen beside his. "It was covered with silken
carpets, adorned with fringes of gold and silver, and studded
with diamonds and pearls. From this she listened while he
delivered judgments."4 Queen Makeda also accompanied Solomon
throughout his kingdom. She observed the wise, compassionate and
spiritual ruler as he interacted with his subjects in everyday
affairs. Speaking of the value of her visit with the King and
her administration for him, Queen Makeda stated: "My Lord, how
happy I am. Would that I could remain here always, if but as the
humblest of your workers, so that I could always hear your words
and obey you.
QUEEN OF ZULULAND (Symbol of a woman of high esteem) (1778-1826)
happy I am when I interrogate you! How happy when you answer
me. My whole being is moved with pleasure; my soul is
filled; my feet no longer stumble; I thrill with delight.
"Your wisdom and goodness," she continued, "are beyond all
measure. They are excellence itself. Under your influence I
am placing new values on life. I see light in the darkness;
the firefly in the garden reveals itself in newer beauty. I
discover added lustre in the pearl; a greater radiance in
the morning star, and a softer harmony in the moonlight.
Blessed be the God that brought me here; blessed be He who
permitted your majestic mind to be revealed to me; blessed
be the One who brought me into your house to hear your
Solomon had a harem of over 700 wives and concubines, yet,
he was enamored by the young Black virgin from Ethiopia.
Although he held elaborate banquets in her honor and wined,
dined and otherwise entertained her during the length of her
visit, they both knew that, according to Ethiopian
tradition, the Queen must remain chaste. Nevertheless, the
Jewish monarch wished to plant his seed in Makeda, so that
he might have a son from her regal African lineage. To this
end the shrewd king conspired to conquer the affection of
this young queen with whom he had fallen in love. When,
after six months in Israel, Queen Makeda announced to King
Solomon that she was ready to return to Ethiopia, he invited
her to a magnificent farewell dinner at his palace. The meal
lasted for several hours and featured hot, spicy foods that
were certain to make all who ate thirsty and sleepy (as King
Solomon had planned.) Since the meal ended very late, the
king invited Queen Makeda to stay overnight in the palace in
his quarters. She agreed as long as they would sleep in
separate beds and the king would not seek to take advantage
of her. He vowed to honor her chastity, but also requested
that she not take anything in the palace. Outraged by such a
suggestion, the Queen protested that she was not a thief and
then promised as requested. Not long after the encounter,
the Queen, dying of thirst, searched the palace for water.
Once she found a large water jar and proceeded to drink, the
King startled her by stating: "You have broken your oath
that you would not take anything by force that is in my
palace. The Queen protested, of course, that surely the
promise did not cover something so insignificant and
plentiful as water, but Solomon argued that there was
nothing in the world more valuable than water, for without
it nothing could live. Makeda reluctantly admitted the truth
of this and apologized for her mistake, begging for water
for her parched throat. Solomon, now released from his
promise, assuaged her thirst and his own, immediately taking
the Queen as his lover."6 The following day as the Queen and
her entourage prepared to leave Israel, the King placed a
ring on her hand and stated, "If you have a son, give this
to him and send him to me." After returning to the land of
Sheba, Queen Makeda did indeed have a son, whom she named
Son-of-the-wise-man, and reared as a prince and her
heir apparent to the throne. Upon reaching adulthood, the
young man wished to visit his father, so the Queen prepared
another entourage, this time headed by Tamrin. She sent a
message to Solomon to anoint their son as king of Ethiopia
and to mandate that thenceforth only the males descended
from their son should rule Sheba. Solomon and the Jewish
people rejoiced when his son arrived in Israel. The king
anointed him as the Queen had requested and renamed him
Menelik, meaning "how handsome he is." Though Solomon had
many wives, only one had produced a son, Rehoboam, a boy of
seven. So the king begged Menelik to remain, but the young
prince would not. Solomon therefore called his leaders and
nobles and announced that, since he was sending his first
born son back to Ethiopia, he wanted all of them to send
their firstborn sons "to be his counselors and officers."
And they agreed to do so. Menelik asked his father for a
relic of the Ark of the Covenant to take back with him to
the land of Sheba. It is said that while Solomon intended to
provide his son with a relic, the sons of the counselors,
angry at having to leave their homes and go to Sheba with
Menelik, actually stole the real Ark and took it to
Ethiopia. Menelik returned to Sheba and, according to
tradition, ruled wisely and well. And his famous line has
continued down to the 20th century when, even now, the ruler
of Ethiopia is the "conquering lion of Judah" descended
directly from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.
Written by Legrand H. Clegg II
of the great leader Shaka Zulu. Nandi is the evalasting symbol
of hard work patience and determination. She withstood and
overcame many obsticles to raise to a position of power in all
QUEEN OF KEMET (the land of the Blacks) (1292-1225 B.C)
marriage to the great Rameses II of lower Ancient Egypt is known
as one of the greatest royal love affair ever. This marriage
also brought an end to the hundred year war between upper and
lower ancient Kemet (Egypt), which in essence unified both
sections into one great Kemet which was the world leading
country. Monuments of this love affair still remains today in
the temples that Rameses built for his wife at Abu Simbel.
The immense structures known as the two temples of Abu
Simbel are among the most magnificent monuments in the
world. Built during the New Kingdom nearly 3,000 years ago,
it was hewn from the mountain which contains it as an
everlasting dedication to King Ramses and his wife Nefertari.
Superb reliefs on the temple detail the Battle of Kadesh,
and Ramses and Nefertari consorting with the deities and
performing religous rituals. The rays of the sun still
penetrate to the Holy of Holies in the rock of the main
temple on the same two days of the year: the 20th of October
and the 20th of Febuary. This timing is probably connected
to the symbolic unification, via the rays of the sun, of the
statue of Ra-Herakhty and the statue of Ramses II. Up to
today these structures remains as the largest, most majestic
structures ever built to honor a wife.
QUEEN OF KEMET (Ancient Egypt the land of the Blacks)
believe by some historians that Nefertiti was the daughter of
Aye and Tiy, while other claims her as the oldest daughter of
Amenhotep III. Nefertiti was married to Akhenaten the originated
of the one god concept(monotheism) as it became known today.
During the early life of Nefertiti she lived in a Kemet where a
new model of human nature in relation to god was emerging. This
belief considered man primarily has a material entity, whose
happiness was measured by his ability to acquire and maintain a
material heaven(wealth and pleasure). In this material heaven
women were not principals that predicted or participated in
social policy, but were objects of sensuality or objects to be
used by men. As weaker members of this paradise women could not
be participants in its building. This belief was completely
contrary to the beliefs of the ancients and the principles of
Ma'at. Akhenaten developed another model. The nature of his new
religion was that Aton represented by the Sun was the sole god
and creator of all life.
Nefertiti could not relegate herself to the traditional role of
subservient-queen. She envisioned an active role for
herself in reshaping civilization. This was later manifested as
she is shown participating in all the religious ceremonies with
Akhenaten. It was only through the combined royal pair that the
god Aton's full blessing could be bestowed. Nefertiti is
displayed with a prominence that other Egyptian queens were not.
Her name is enclosed in a royal cartouche, and there are in fact
more statues and drawings of her than of Akhenaten. Yet the
priest with their materialist model were powerful and they
dominated the higher government offices. In this arena women
were incapable of divinity. Akhenaten and Nefertiti countered a
revolt by the priest and emerged victorious and created a new
capital for Kemet called Akhetaten a city that could give birth
to their scared mission, a mission in pursuit of Divine life.
She insisted on being portrayed has a equal divine partner to
Akhenaten and their exist many illustrations of her riding a
chariot with Akhenaten during major rituals. While Akhenaten's
ideas wanned without him their to defend them. The priest still
considered Nefertiti's heresy a greater threat. The concept of a
woman bypassing the male priest hood via a mother-goddess to
worship the divine was totally unacceptable. And sadly enough
continues to be unacceptable in the major religions that
dominate the world today. Nefertiti though her devotion and her
demand for respect proved she deserved a special place in the
history of women.
HISTORICAL CHART OF BLACK CIVILIZATION AND CULTURE
500,000 to 150,000 B.P. (Before Present)
Homo Erectus develops in Africa.
150,000 B.C. to 100,000 B.C.
The first Homosapiens who were of the Black Africoid race appear at Omo
region in Ethiopia.
100,000 to 70,000 B.C.
Africans initiate a cultural renaissance in the Congo Region and South
Africa. Well crafted tools of stone and bone are created. Writing and the
etching of stone is done. Red ochre is used for body paint and body
decoration. Migrations to other parts of the world begin around this period.
No Homosapiens in Asia
Negroid migrations to Australia begins
No Homosapiens in Europe
No Homosapiens in the Americas
80,000 to 50,000
Development of advanced tool making in parts of Africa (evidence found in
Congo; 1994: South Africa 2001: age range 100,000 to 70,000 B.C.)
Homo Erectus enters Europe from Africa
Neanderthals thrive in Africa. They migrate to Europe and Asia
African "Adam and Eve," (per Mitochondrial DNA), are the first modern-like
humans to migrate out of Africa. They include the various types of Black
Black Australoids, Pygmoids and Negroids enter Europe, Asia, Siberia,
Australia, Melanesia and the Americas
Culture begins in Africa, migrations of Africans to other parts of the world
First Homosapiens occupy Asia, Europe and the Americas from Africa.
Grimaldi Negroids enter Europe with advanced African culture called the
Arignacian Culture. Arts such as paintings, cloth making, advanced tool
making and other advanced crafts from Africa is brought to Europe, the
Americas, Australia and the South Pacific/Melanesia.
African Paintings of animals and scenery in Upper Paleolithic Period about
30,000 years ago.
Black Australoids from Australia and proto African Blacks from the South
Pacific reach South America (Brazil) and spread to the rest of the Americas.
Early horticulture practiced in the Sahara. Pastoralism and hunting also
Iron ore mined in Swaziland about 40,000 years ago for the purpose of making
red ochre for decoration and body paint.
Black Grimaldi Negroids migrate to the Middle East and Asia bringing the
Aurignacian culture from Africa to Europe as well
Grimaldi Negroids enter Europe bringing in the AUrignacian Culture. They
later evolve into the Cro-Magnon People after about twenty thousand years of
living in the cold, damp ice and loosing the need for dark black skin.
Ancestors of Black Australoids, Pygmies and Melanesians from the Sahara and
East Africa migrate to Australia about 100,000 to 60,000 thousand years ago.
Descendants of Tasmanian Blacks arrive thousands of years before.
Melanesians arrive from the coast of East Africa about. They establish
cultures throughout Asia and are the only Homosapiens in the region. Many
occupy China, India, and South East Asia.
Negroid type dominates all Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa, the Pacific
Islands, and the Middle East. This type is said to have been a more Negroid
Cro-Magnon, who had not been affected as yet by the Ice Age conditions which
led to the change in skin complexion.
Blacks bring horticulture and early agricultural practices from Africa to
Melanesia, Papua New Guinea and the Region.
First 'white" Cro-Magnon types appear in Europe among a Black population in
much of the warmer parts of Europe and Asia.
Pacific Blacks sail to the Americas after sailing from East Africa.
First Black cultures and civilizations called the Aquatic Civilizations
developing the Sahara.
First evidence of a more advanced culture in the region.
Blacks from Sahara sail to the Americas across the Atlantic
First "white" Cromagnoids appear in Europe. These Homosapiens evolved from
the Black Grimaldi Negroids who migrated from Africa
17,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C...
Beginning of Nile Valley cultures and prehistoric civilizations.
Civilizations begin in Sudan and spreads down-river to the middle part of
Egypt. The Delta is still covered with water.
Black cultures in SW Asia, India, Melanesia, Papua New Guinea, the South
Pacific and Southern China thrive. Ice Age still affects northern Asia.
Zingh Empire exists in West Africa while part of Sahara is still covered
with Lakes and an inland sea that supports boats and a maritime culture.
Zingh Empire spreads its influence over much of the Sahara, tropical Africa
and the Middle East, and establishes their standard; the red, black and
green flag over the entire region, (Blisshords Communications)
Blacks control much of Europe especially southern and central part. Ice
still in Northern Europe, Cro-Magnon and early Cacausoids in the far
northern regions and north Central Europe.
10,000 B.C. to 8,000 B.C.
Kingdom of Ta-Seti (Nubia) reaches a peak of culture. Glass is produced,
astronomy is studied, observatories are built, and trade and commerce is
Sahara and Nile Corridor continue to develop. Painting, carving, homes,
monuments, early disciplines, the horse and chariot, building in stone.
Neolithic culture moves on. Agriculture develops further. Some forms of
metal working, making of jewelry and decorations. Buildings of towns,
villages and cities begin in the Sahara and elsewhere.
Sphinx built about 10,000 B.C., Year of Leo
Towns and cities spread throughout Ethiopian Empire (Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia,
Libya, Somalia, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Mesopotamia, and South Arabia,
Mongoloid race develops from combination Negroids and Caucasoids in
Mediterranean region, during the Mesolithic Age. First evidence of Brach
cephalic (trait found among Mongoloids and Semites. round-headed races).
Trade and travel between West Asia and Africa.
Great Black civilization exists in Southern India. Culture is Africoid and
part of what was a great cultural region that connected the Ethiopian Empire
Black Matrilineal cultures in Southern Europe. Worship of Black female deity
(Black Virgin) in Europe. Africoids occupy vast areas of Europe. Caucasians
in the Northern regions of Europe.
Blacks continue to build culture and civilization in the Americas. Washitaw
Moundbuilders of the South-western U.S.
Black Giants inhabit the Mississippi Region. These Africans are engaged in
agriculture and maritime activity as well as trade and commerce.
8000 to 4241 B.C.
Khemetic Calendar invented 6786 B.C.
Civilizations of Ta-Seti in Nubia. Natufian and Badarian Culture in Egypt,
Abacus invented in Ishongo, Congo (Central Africa)
Horse, elephant, donkey used in early transportation.
Khemite New Year established in 4241 B.C.
Improvements made in sciences, mathematics, technology, agriculture.
Cities expand, trade with world and colonies established around the
African Khemetic New Year established in the City of On (Iunu), Egypt. Many
great cities exist Nubian Kingdom of Ta-Seti Continues to thrive and
prosper. Colleges, temple universities, laws and religion improves.
Manufacturing trade and commerce advances.
Nok Culture develops further in West Africa
Africans with West African and Nile Corridor connections sail to the
Americas and carry their calendar dated 3113 B.C., to Mexico.
West African civilizations build industries trading in gold and salt,
textiles, with the Sahara and Egypt. Age-grade system of education, trade
guilds and secret societies connected with trades and religions develop
Mongoloids develop further in the Northern part of Asia. Southern China
occupied by Black Negritoes, Negroids and Black Australoids.
Black cultures continue to develop in Mississippi Valley, particularly
Washitaw Nation. America's population consists of Black straight-haired
Australoids (as those of India and Australian Aborigines) see
Black Pygmies and Africoids from West Africa.
3500 B.C. to 3000 B.C.
Nubian Dynasty at Qustul 3400 B.C. to 3200 B.C., War of Unity (Northern and
Khemet and Nubia united. Narmer Pharaoh.
Memphis (Ineb-hedj) as capital.
Large magnificent temples built to Ptah at Memphis, Niet at Sau (Sais).
Books on the body composed
Pharaoh Edimu improves stone construction. Industries, trade with
West African civilizations expand. Gold, terrcotta industries, trade, towns
in Ghana, Mali areas.
Black Cushitic civilization of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro in the Indus Valley
Black Cushitic civilization in Mesopotamia, India, East Asia. Sumerians
consisting of Black Cushites and Black Semitic Speakers from Ethiopia
Groups of Africans sail to Fiji and other areas of South Pacific, continuing
a tradition that is tens of thousands of years old.
Mongoloids and Oceanic Blacks mix in SE Asia to create Polynesian People.
They spread to the Pacific Islands, a region that had already been occupied
by Black nations.
3000 to 2000 B.C.
Caucasian Scythians spread throughout Europe from North Central Eurasia,
after horses are tamed and introduced by Khemites (Black Egyptians, (see
Michael Bradley, "The Black Discovery of America," also the works of
Whites still concentrated around the Caspian Sea Region, but continue to
spread westward and southward in what would be called the Aryan migrations.
Gold craftswork in Southeastern Europe continues after being established
about 4000 B.C.
Black matrilineal system continues to thrive among whites. Worship of female
Goddesses and Black virgin mothers continue.
Black cultures in the Americas continue to thrive. Races up to about 2000
B.C. continue to be Black Australoids and other Black nations.
Black Olmec or Shi culture carried to Mexico from West Africa.
Black Olmecs establish first calendar about 3113 B.C. (see Sitchin
Olmec civilization contains features in race, religion and cultural
practices identical to the Nok Culture of West Africa, including
scarification marks, cornrows, Black African racial features, and even an
alphabet identical to the Mende script of West Africa.
Wave of Mongoloids from Siberia enters the Americas.
Fishing, hunting and early agriculture practiced by Mongoloids. Some
conflict between the Mongoloids and the Negro-Australoids. Mixing of races
occur in parts of North America, however Blacks in places like the
Mississippi Valley, the South Eastern U.S., California, Mexico, Central
America and South America resist mixing and remain distinctly Black. (See
pictures of such groups
"Black Civilizations of the Americas."
3000 B.C. TO 2000 B.C.
Sun temples built.
Influence and power of men like Sahure.
Coffin texts written.
Hennu, Snefru sail to Puntite kingdom, trade, commerce with town’s cities
along East African coast all the way to S. Africa.
Books written by philosophers Kagemani, Ptahotep, and Pyramid Texts written.
Book of the Dead (Book of the Coming Forth by Night) written about 2300 B.C.
Nok Civilization thrives over West Africa and parts of Southern Sahara. Art,
bronze casting, trade, government and culture strengthened.
Great flourishing of Khemite/Nubian civilization.
Wars between Khem and Nubia as well as Libya.
Zoser builds step pyramid. Imhotep improves architecture, medicine, science;
the priesthood is world's first scientist/doctor.
Khemite troops guard Sinai against red-haired barbarians.
Pyramid built at Sakkara and Dashur. Eleven pyramids built during the
Khemite trade with Fenkhu (Phonecia). Sahure sails to Asia and may have
established contact with people in China.
Black Elamites, Sumerians and Mesopotamians rule in the Fertile Crescent.
Black Elamites conquer Ur. Babylonian Dynasty formed; Hammurabi is king; he
writes codes, conquers Sumeria and Elam.
Mohenjo-daro flourishes in India,
Black Xia Dynasty of China 2800 B.C. to 2200 B.C.
Black Shang Dynasty of China; 2200 B.C. to 1100 B.C.
Shang Dynasty Blacks developed first Chinese civilization introducing
culture from the Cushite regions of Mesopotamia and Khemet as well as Black
Series of Mongoloid Dynasties and rulers such as: Fu Hsi, Sheng Nung, Yao,
Khemite/Nubian and Black Kushite Dravidian influences enter China and
influences culture further.
Golden Age of Ur; Semitic speakers invade Black Canaan from Arabian deserts.
Black Cushite civilizations develop in Sabena and South Arabia. Sargon of
Akkad as first Semite King. Sumeria united
Barbarians dominate Northern and Central Europe.
Black Egyptians occupy Greek Isles, including Crete (Khepra)
Barbarians sweet into Eurasia. Aryan speakers migrate into India and
Barbarian horsemen spread over wide area of Europe. Blacks loose control of
Crete to invaders from the northern lands. Black cultures in Southern Europe
begin to be overwhelmed by northern peoples. Khemites and Phoenicians mine
tin in Cornwall, England, Iberia and parts of Western Europe. Black colonies
established in Britain, including Black giants called Formorians, who
migrate from North Africa.
New group of Mongoloids enter North America from the China/Japan region of
Asia. These types are related to the Algonquin (see African Presence in
Early America," by Ivan Van Sertima)
Conflicts with Blacks occur, yet Black sedentary and agricultural
communities remain intact in the Southern, Western and Eastern U.S., as well
as the Mississippi Valley, while most Mongoloids pursue a lifestyle of
hunting and nomadic movements, fishing and agriculture in the North-Eastern
Maya Indians live north of Black Olmec areas in Central America and Mexico.
Indians cultures develop.
2000 B.C. to 1000 B.C.
Khemites/Kushites invade S.W. Asia; barbarians from Europe defeated in the
internal conflict occurs in Khem. Waset (Thebes) becomes the most important
city in Khemet (Egypt) as well as capital.
Improvements in religions and schools. Asiatics are forced out of the Delta.
Hyksos invade from Arabia. Sea Peoples invade and are defeated by Ahmose 1.
Ahmose the Scribe copies math formulas on papyrus.
Invaders control northern Egypt
Blacks rule south. Amenophis composes "hymn to Atum." Hyksos driven out.
Colossi of Memnon constructed (Menes?)
More naturalistic art.
Nok civilization flourishes in West Africa and continues trade with Sahara,
Egypt, Kush and the Americas. Trade between Egypt and Mexico continues from
ancient times (Mexico may have been the "Manu" of Egyptian texts).
Sailing across Atlantic by Nubians, West Africans and Egyptians as well as
Phoenicians. Cities in West Africa (Mauritania region). Gold and salt trade
with coastal kingdoms.
Famine in Khemet (Egypt); food prices rise.
Chemistry highly advanced, books kept; Nubians build first ever massive
domes, reservoirs, pyramids.
Nubian ships dominate parts of Mediterranean and Indian Ocean as well as
Nubians control both army and government of Egypt from 1100 B.C. to about
Egyptians (Khemites) use iron by 1500 B.C... Nubians use iron during same
period but not for weapons, since Bronze is more popular. Khem becomes rich
and powerful. Egyptian Capital at Pi-Ramses.
Tale of Two Brothers written.
Revolting Nubians defeated by Khemites.
Phoenicians spread from Canaan.
Ethiopians develop Sabean civilization.
Makeda is Queen of Sheba; other kings rule.
Black Shang Dynasty rule China for 643 years, up to 1122 or 1123 B.C. Book
of Changes rewritten from the original Cushite Book of Changes from
Chou Dynasty, first purely Mongoloid Dynasty starts rule from 1122 B.C. Laws
of Chou written;
Indo-Aryans invade Black India. Blacks defeat Aryans but floods destroy
Harappa and Mohenjo daro, making it easy for the invaders to sweep into
Ancient Vedas composed by Black Negro-Australoids of Harappa and
Mohenjo-daro, and copied later by invaders.
Black Babylonian Dynasty and civilization thrives
Hittites in Turkey; Black Canaanites flourish in what is today Israel,
Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon
Mongoloid Chinese Dynasties continue to rule in northern China. Black
Dynasties rule southern part, mainly descendants of Shang Dynasty who were
pushed out of their capital city, An-Yang about 1100 B.C.
First Mongoloids arrive in Japan from Korea. Mongols mix with Blacks,
Polynesians and Ainu, who were the original inhabitants of Japan.
Black Melanesians and Polynesians sail over Pacific Ocean, occupying islands
and reaching parts of South America.
Mixed Black/Semitic race rules Assyria.
Shamshi Addad II is King; Black Sabean civilization in South Arabia. Black
civilization in South Pacific, India, Australia, Jews in Egypt.
Hebrews/Jews invade Black Canaan (present-day, Israel, Jordan, Syria,
Saul and David become Kings of new Israelite nation.
Phoenicians continue their maritime activities are hired by both Egyptians
and Nubians for commercial purposes.
Salomon Jewish King establishes relations with Abyssinia.
Middle Minoan to 1180 B.C. Egyptian Blacks continues civilization in Minoa
Crete. Etruscans develop. Black colonies in Spain, England. Indo-Europeans
such as the Dorians and Latin’s invade Italy from north-Central Europe and
Barbarians roam over Central Europe; Indo-Europeans established in parts of
Europe. Greeks under Black Khemite influence, some are mercenaries in Khem.
Parts of Western, Southern and Brit. Isles occupied by Blacks; Mycenaean’s
destroy Crete; Black colonies formed in Spain including Black Phoenicians.
Rise of Greek City-States
Greek culture adopts Khemetic styles; Minoans no longer a power.
Mayans in Meso-America; Khemites, Nubians and West Africans begin settlement
in Mexico by 1200 B.C.
Heads of basalt carved, temples, pyramids, religious centers are built.
Mayan city of Kaminaljuyu established. Thousands of Blacks in Vera Cruz,
South Mexico. Cities of San Lorenzo built by Black Olmecs. Black Olmec
culture starts in 3113 B.C. and continues to about 400 A.D.
Black Olmec-Nubian Dynasties continue their rule. Blacks are at all levels
of Olmec society. They spread their culture to the rest of Central America.
Both Mayas and Black Olmecs continue to build in Central America, each group
controlling their own areas and yet having trade and commercial contact.
Black Olmec centers built in San Lorenzo. New wave of Black shamans arrives
from West Africa and introduces the Venus worship and thunder God religions.
Indian civilizations develop in South America. First Mongoloid Indians move
into the Caribbean Island region.
1000 B.C. to 500 B.C.
Journey by Wenamen to Canaan composed.
Herihor is first Prophet of Amen.
Civil war between Khemites; Sheshonk is Pharaoh for 52 years.
Relations with Spain. Libyan Dynasty rules Egypt (Khemet) from 1000 B.C. to
Khemite Dynasties from850 B.C. to 745 B.C.
Nubian Dynasty rules Egypt from 745 B.C. to 685 B.C.
Nubians revive Egyptian culture, build monuments, cities, and temples;
Tarharka, Nubian Pharaoh encourages use of demotic script.
NUBIAN-KUSHITE PHAROAHS OF EGYPT
720 B.C. to 658 B.C.
Piankhi - 720 B.C.
Shabaka - 713 B.C.
Shibitku - 701- 698 B.C.
Shabataka - 698-690 B.C.
Tarharka - 690-664 B.C.
Tunoutamon - 664 to 658 B.C.
NUBIAN-KUSHITE PHAROAHS OF THE NUBIAN -KUSHITE EMPIRE (present-day Arab
Atlanarsa - 653 to 643 B.C. (Before Christ)
Senkamanisken - 643 to 623
Anlamani - 623- 593
Aspelta - 593 - 568
Amani-nete-yerike = 431 to 45 B.C.
Harsiotef - 404 to 369
Natasen - 335 to 310
Ergamenos - 250 to 125 B.C. Ergamenos abolished the practice of royal
suicide, eliminating the Pharaohs after a period of about ten to 20 years of
Taniydamani - Between 200 to 100 B.C.
Nubian Queens and Queen-Mothers;
Queen Mother Nasalsa - Mother of Pharaohs Aspelta and Anlamani = 593 B.C.
Queen Mother Pelekhs = 335 to 310
Queen Sakhakh wife of Natasen - 335 to 310
Queen Shanakdakhete = 170 B.C. o 160 B.C.
(starts female Pharaoh rule which lasts for three generations to about mid
Pharaoh Natakamani and Queen Amanitere, 12 B.C. to 12 A.D. Great builders of
cities monuments, temples. They rebuilt Napata after the Roman (Petronius)
destruction of the Kushite Capital. They Build Naga Lion Temple.
Pharaoh Tegorideamani - 246 A.D. to 266 A.D.
The Nubian-Kushite civilization and system of Kingship extends back to the
time of Ta-Seti (8,000 B.C. to about 4500 B.C. followed by the Nubian-Kushite
Kingdom about 4500 B.C. to 1500 A.D. The Nubian Monarchy still exists today
and their present King is the oldest line of kingship by any culture on
earth today. THIS IS THE CIVILIZATION AND CULTURE THAT NUBIANISTS AND PAN-AFRICANISTS
AROUND THE WORLD ARE SUPPORTING. Nubia-Kush is the core, the heart and soul
of Pan-African culture and CIILIZATION) Nubian civilization is over ten
thousand years, according to excavations and findings carried out in Sudan
in the year 2000 (see Time Magazine)
Assyrians Invade About 685 B.C.: Series of European and West Asian invaders
rule Egypt, including the Assyrians, Saites, Babylonians, Persians, Jews,
Greeks, Romans until about30 A.D.
1000 B.C. t0 500 B.C.
Feudal Age begins in China: Chou takes over from Black Shang Dynasty.
Sargon King of Assyria; Babylon burned by Sennacherib.
Assyrians invade Khem in 671 B.C., They destroy Memphis;
Chou Dynasty is first Mongoloid dynasty. They rule from 771 B.C. to 256 B.C.
Remnants of Black Shang found Black (Nahkhi) Dynasties in Southern China
Chinese use coins, build drainage projects.
Black kingdoms in Southern India:
Greeks, Romans occupy parts of Asia; wars between Persians and Indians.
660 B.C., Jimmu forms first Japanese state.
Illyad, Homers epics written
Lydians us coins;
Khemites (Egyptians) recruit Greek warriors
Celts dominate Central Europe
Tarharka, Nubian Pharaoh invades Spain, Nubians ( also known as Ethiopians)
dominate Atlantic and Mediterranean
Tarharka, Nubian Pharaoh occupies Spain
Greeks, Persians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Nubians meet in Mediterranean.
Trade and conflict occur in the region
Journey of Nubians and West Africans to Mexico, possibly under Tarharka.
Black Olmecs establish another Calendar in 747 B.C. New Year celebrated on
April 26th. Mayans build more settlements away from Black Olmec areas.
Black Olmecs or Xi rule in Mexico till about 400 A.D. (3113 B.C. to 400
Chavin and other cultures in South America.
Black Washitaw build ceremonial sites throughout Southern and Midwestern
U.S. Black Tribes in California and South-Eastern U.S. thrive through trade
500 B.C. to 1 A.D.
Plato studies in Egypt under Black Egyptian priests Manetho writes History
Alexandrian library built and founded by African named Eratosthenes, a
scholar and librarian. He charts earth's circumference and also composed
Canon of Kings of Thebes.
Nubia flourishes under female Pharaohs called Ka'andakes (Candaces).
Ethiopia (Axum) in golden Era, relations with Jews
Massinissa rules Numidia (200 B.C. to 148 B.C.)
Trade continues between West Africa and Americas and between West Africa and
Mediterranean; East Africa to Zimbabwe develops city states and trades with
Asia and Mediterranean, the rest of Africa.
Hannibal defeats and occupies Rome.
Stone cities built in Southern Africa.
Black kingdoms in South India; cultures in the Pacific, Nakis Kingdom
flourishes in Southern China.
New Period of Philosophers and poets.
Han Dynasty begins 206 B.C. to 221 A.D.
Romans occupy Israel. Jewish religion has offshoots and sects; Christianity
develops out of Jewish religion.
Romans build Empire in Europe, North Africa.
Pax Romana or Roman Peace is established; Romans occupy much of Europe and
dominates territories. Roman influence spreads to parts of India.
Pastoralists in Central Europe; Barbarians occupy large areas of Central
Barbarian conflicts with Roman ambitions. War breaks out.
The Black Olmecs continue to rule in parts of Mexico. Africans continue to
sail to Mexico/Central America from Africa and possibly the Pacific Region.
Olmecs and Mayas create great cultures, stone monuments, hieroglyphic
Mayans adopt Black Mende Olmec (Xi) cultural forms, including pyramid
building, which the Mayans develop into another style.
Cultures in South America and other parts of the Americas continue to
Contacts from Africa and the Pacific Islands.
Black groups and nations form throughout the Americas from Olmec Empire.
Choco People in Columbia, Afro-Darienite in Panama, Black Californians of
California and the South-West (see Legend of Queen Calfia), Jamassee in
Georgia and Washitaw of Louisiana are all existing groups of pre-Columbian
Black nations who still exist or are blended in with the later slave-era
African arrival to the Americas.
Mayas thrive in Yucatan; Toltec’s in Central Mexico; Teutonic culture.
500 BC. TO 1 A.D.
Nok-Wagadu Kingdom trades with Phoenicians (see Herodotus detail about
Hanno's trip around Africa to the Cameroon region, (Nok Culture 3000 B.C. to
500 A.D. Most Africans kingdoms in the Sahel and forest kingdoms of West
Africa, such as Benin, Ashanti, Oyo, existed earlier than 1200 B.C.
according to African sources).
People in Nok region continue ancient contact with the Americas. Shaman and
worshippers of Shango and the Venus Complex migrate to Mexico from West
Africa. Migrations began about 725 B.C. and continues to 400's A.D. (see
picture of ancient figurine of Oni or Priest-King of ancient West Africa at
In 525 B.C., Nubians defeat Persian King Cambysis at Batn-al-Hadjar
Aspelta is Nubian-Kushite Pharaoh
Queen Mother is Nasala
Sacred Temple of Amun at Jabel Barkel is rebuilt and refurnished 593-568
Two years after the reign of Nubian Pharaoh Aspelta, Psamtik II of Egypt
invades Kush with Greek and Carian mercenaries under command of Amasis and
Potasimto. Napata, the Nubian-Kushite capital is captured.
Nubian-Kushites transfer capital from Napata and move southward to Meroe.
Phoenicians and Carthaginians continue trade with West Africa: Hanno sees
evidence of Harvest Festival (Kwanzaa) in Cameroon in 450 B.C. (see "The
Histories, by Herodotus).
Trade in Gold, salt. African gold, iron, bronze industries thrive in West
400 B.C.; Ghana Empire spread over large area of West Africa particularly in
what is today Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea and other parts of West
Trade across Sahara continues. Agriculture well established in the region.
Greeks and Persians kept out of Kush (Nubia) Ptolemy V attempts to Invade
Meroe made Kushite (Nubian) capital. Nubians, East Africans (pre-Swahili
Africans of Punt) and Abyssinians trade with China and India.
Ethiopians (Sabeans) create large empire which extends from Ethiopia,
through Arabia, all the way to Armenia and Southern Russia. Black Ethiopian
Jews thrive in Ethiopian Highlands.
Greeks, Jews, Europeans and others study in Egyptian Temple Universities
Last Black Khemite (Egyptian) Dynasty 378 to 341 B.C. Nectanebo 1 is
Pharaoh. Nectabebo is defeated by Persian Ataxerxes 111, in 343 B.C.
Alexander the Great invades Khemet (Egypt) 322 B.C.
Aspelta is Pharaoh of Nubia-Kush in 525 B.C.
Amanoteyerike is Pharaoh in 400 B.C. He is a warrior-king, builder of cities
and temples. He improves Nubian -Kushite culture.
Phonetic alphabet developed further about 170 B.C.
Nubians sack Aswan, in Roman occupied Egypt and carry off statue of
Roman Prefect Petronius captures Napata, Nubian capital in 23 B.C. A peace
treaty is signed and the Romans withdraw in 20 B.C.
Queen Amanishaketo rules with Natakamani, Pharaoh of Nubia-Kush from 12 B.C.
to 12 A.D.
Golden Era of Nubian-Kushite civilization, including the development of an
Industrial Age in which the use of iron and the manufacture of iron goods
was very important and widespread That period was from about 600 B.C. to 325
Buddha teaches in India. Buddha is believed to be of Black Kushite stock,
similar to the Negroid peoples who still inhabit many parts of India today.
Buddha comes from the Sakya Clan.
Confucius, Chinese philosopher teaches in China.
Bureaucratic system peaks in China.
Persians dominate West Asia eastern Mediterranean from 500 B.C. to 300 B.C.
Persian Kings include, Cyrus, Darius, Cambisis, Xerxes, and Ataxerxes:
Greeks invade India with Alexander the Great.
Black Indians dominate South India.
(Negro-Australoids Kushite speakers).
Wars between Chinese states.
Black Nakhi Kingdom, remnants of ancient Shang People exist in Southern
Melanesian cultures develop in South Pacific, Papua New Guinea, including
development of agriculture/horticulture, boatbuilding, the building of large
settlements, sea trading and travel including contacts and trade with East
Ashoka is King in India. He changes in outlook after a war in which about
100,000 lives are lost.
273-232 B.C. Tang Dynasty influences Japanese culture, including writing,
art, religion and language (some African historians point out that the core
of Japanese language is East Africa).
Period of Philosophers and Poets
Han Dynasty 206 B.C. to 221 A.D.
Romans occupy Israel
Christians emerge from Jewish religion
Romans in Europe
Conflict between Romans and various European Tribes
Nubian and North African troops in Europe and Britain. Rise of Bodacia,
British Queen who leads struggle against Roman occupiers.
Spread of Christianity in the Mediterranean
Black Olmec Civilization continues to flourish in Mexico, Central America
Mayas and other groups of Mongoloid "Indians," gain prominence.
Teotihuacán culture prospers in Central Mexico
Nomadic and coastal Indian peoples inhabit parts of the Great Plains and
both the Eastern and Western U.S. Migrations from Siberia trickles into the
American Continent from Alaska.
Black nations continue to trade by sea and by land in the Mississippi Valley
region, California and the South-Eastern U.S.
Arawak and Mongol Carib Indians conflict in Caribbean Islands.
1 A.D. to 1000 A.D.
Egypt under Roman occupation. Black Khemetic culture still dominant in Egypt
except in places where descendants of Jews, Greeks and others live.
Romans bring in people from the Arabian region into Egypt.
Nubian civilization continues to flourish: Natahamani is Pharaoh From12 B.C.
to 12 A.D.
Period of about 400 B.C. to 200 A.D., African priests from Nubia and Khem
(Egypt) teach science, art, technology and history to Demetrius of Phalere,
Diodorus Cronos Hegesias, Euclid, Manton, Aristech’s of Somas, Archimedes,
Sextons, Plutarch us, Plato, Aristius, Eratosthenes, Claudius Maximus, St.
Augustine and many others.
Thousands of ancient books written by Nubian Ethiopian and Khemite priests
over thousands of years were copied during this period at Alexandria
Golden era of Nubian civilization; large cities built. Temples, colleges and
schools improved. Highly advanced arts and crafts. Nubians continue their
maritime trade and commerce. Build strong army with expert archer regiments
Nubia invaded by Axumites led by Azana in 325 A.D.
Axumite Empire is established in Ethiopia from about 200 B.C. to 800 A.D.,
as a continuation of the Black Sabean Empire of ancient times.
Ethiopia sees a Golden Age of culture, religion, trade, commerce from about
300 A.D. to 1100 A.D. During that period, huge churches carved out of solid
cliff rock are built in the Lilebella Region of Ethiopia.
Ethiopians carry out trade and commercial activities with Nubians, other
Africans, Greeks, Romans, Chinese, East Indians, South Africans, Swahili,
Arabians and others.
Christianity officially established in Nubia and Ethiopia between 300 A.D.
to 500 A.D. Christianity in its early forms reached Nubia and Ethiopia as
early as the time of the Apostles and Ethiopian Eunuch. Judaism reached
Ethiopia about the time of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, 950 to 1000 B.C.
Swahili city-states grow rich and powerful and continue an ancient tradition
in trade and commerce that extends back to the time of Hatshepsut and Queen
Ati of Punt. Swahili cities stretch from Somalia to Mozambique. Many are
more than two thousand years by the time the Arabs and Persians arrive to
trade in the Region (see Egyptian paintings of Hatshepsut's expedition to
Punt) (about 300 A.D. to 1000 A.D.)
Zimbabwe Empire spreads in Southern Africa. First stages of building of
Zimbabwe stone enclosures begins about 300 B.C. Vakaranga People continues
to expand buildings over much of Zimbabwe during the 1000's to 1100's A.D.
Shona People add to construction later on.
Zimbabwe Empire trades with Swahili, Chinese, coastal and interior Africans
and other peoples.
Commodities traded include steel (the world's first steel and the blast
furnace to create steel were invented by the East Africans in Kenya about
200 B.C.). The trade in Zimbabwe also included gold, ivory, iron tools and
weapons, rice, jewelry, cloth and manufactured products. Products were sold
to China, India, Europe, the Middle East, Arabia (the famous "Damascus
steel," was created in Zimbabwe.
WEST AFRICAN EMPIRES EMERGE
The ancient kingdoms of West Africa and West African culture itself has
existed since prehistoric times. In fact, the earliest civilizations on
earth, the Aquatic civilizations of the South Western Sahara began over
20,000 years ago. They were master ship builders and practiced agriculture.
They also may have made significant contributions to the building of
advanced civilizations in the Americas, such as the Olmec and the Washitaw
of the Mississippi, both ancient American cultures that show African
influence from the West Africa/Sahara region.
Great kingdoms established as early as 3000 B.C., by 1500 B.C. kingdoms that
gave rise to empires such as Oyo, Benin, Ashanti are established. They trade
with Egyptians and other Africans as well as with people in the Americas.
West Africa enters a golden era between 400 B.C. to 1600 A.D.A number of
kingdoms reemerge. They include Ghana, Mali, Songhai, Kanem Bornu, Congo,
Angola, Ashanti and others.
West African Kings
Tenkamenin King of Ghana 1000th Century
Tenkamenin was one of the Kings of Ghana who reigned when Ghana was going
through another cultural renaissance.
Sunni Ali Ber 1464 to 1492.
He built the Songhai Empire into a large and powerful empire in West Africa
and one of the richest on earth. He had a large army of full-time
professional soldiers including horse and camel cavalry units. He captured
Timbuktu (a magnificent city where books were manufactured ought and sold
and where students from all over the world studied) and the university city
of Jenne, after a seven-year siege on the city of Jenne.
Askia Muhammad Toure 1493 to 1529
Askia Muhammad was a great leader and king. He was an honorable man and was
righteous. During his reign, he created provinces out of his vast country
and established an efficient system of administrators and judges. He lowered
taxes making it easier for the common people to pay.
Alfonse I, King of Congo 1506 to 1540
Affonso I was the first African leader to begin the process of modernizing
Africa. He encouraged the learning of a number of skills and subjects and
established the most modern school system in Africa. Affonso 's objective
was to create a powerful state that excelled in technology and knowledge.
Affonso was against the slave trade and worked to stop it in his kingdom.
Idris Alooma Sultan of Bornu 1580 to 1670
The Kingdom of Kanem-Bornu, near present-day Chad, was created through the
union of two states, Kanem and Bornu. Aloma united these two states. He was
a strong leader and had a large army with a cavalry of knights and horseback
in armor. He also used muskets as one of his weapons.
Shamba Bolongongo (1600 to 1620)
King Shamba as one of the Greatest kings of the Congo region. His main
objective was making sure peace was kept throughout his kingdom/
Shamba believed in the most highly cherished aspects of African religion,
that being the right to live.
He created a very effective system of government, using the traditional
system of African democratic traditions including checks and balances.
Shamba's government included sections such as the military, judicial, and
administrative branches. During his reign, Shamba Bolongongo contributed to
making the arts and crafts of the highest quality and level through his
promotion and support.
Osei Tutu, Ashanti King; Ghana 1680 to 1717
The Ashanti are also remnants of people who lived in West Africa as well as
people who migrated from the Sahara. Osei Tutu united the Ashanti People and
established a strong military and trading nation. Ashantis were successful
in defeating the British during the late 1800's and they like the Dahomey
(Benin) trained women soldiers in their armies. The British were able to
defeat the Ashanti after many ears of warfare.
Powerful Nubian Christian Kingdoms of Mukuria, Nobadia and Alwa emerge from
Nubia enters crusades on side of Christians. Arabs defeated in Nubia by
Emperor Kalydosos during the 600's A.D., yet their attempt to infiltrate
Treaty holds till 1500's A.D. until Arabs attack Funj Empire.
End of Nubian Kingdom after 10,000 years of existence.
Ethiopians in the Crusades while a religious renaissance takes place in the
Ethiopian kingdom. They create rock-hewn churches, monastic traditions,
writing of encyclopedias, books, scrolls, and a tradition that extends
earlier than the 500 A.D.
Ethiopians defeat Gallas and Arabs; Turks defeated at Asmara during the
1500's. Portuguese defeated.
Black African population dominant before Arab invasions:
Black population in Egypt is supplanted with people from the Arabian region.
Mixed races dominate northern part of Egypt, Blacks dormant in the southern
part. Islam gains a foothold in Egypt after invasion of 600's. Coptic’s
continue Christian tradition.
Malians send ships to the Americas between 1200 to 1300's
Mali becomes powerful maritime trading empire: Abu Bakari sends 2000 ships
to the Americas in 1305 to 1308.
More on West African Civilization, see "African Glory," by J.C.deGraft-Johnson,
pub. Black Classics Press, Baltimore MD.
712 A.D., Africans and Arabs conquer Sind, India; Black kings from the
Ethiopian region rule the region.
Ganges, Ethiopian emperor, establishes an empire that stretches from
Ethiopia to Ganges River in India.
Abraha Al-Ashram, ex-slave becomes emperor of Yemen and Ethiopia. He defends
Yemeni Christians against Jews in 569 A.D.
Golden Era of Black Civilization (Khmer) in Cambodia (for more see
From about 800 A.D. to 1300 A.D. Black Negroid Black Negro-Australoids (also
found in Bangladesh and other parts of India) and Negrito kingdoms dominate
Cambodia and South East Asia. They include:
Chenla, 802 A.D. to 850 A.D.
Anghkor, 802 A.D. to 1431 A.D.
Champa 100 A.D. to 1200 A.D.
(see also the book, "African Presence in Early Asia," by Ivan Van Sertima;
Blacks of SE Asia trade with East Africa, India,
500 A.D. to 1185 A.D. Yamato Clan rules Japan; Reforms in Japanese
government around 645 A.D.
700 A.D. to 1000 A.D., Classic Age of Japanese culture, art, literature.
Feudal Age in Japan
Samurais take power
Chinese use gunpowder
1274 - Mongol invasion of Japan repelled.
1404 Chinese trade with Asia and
with Africa continues
Onin War; feudalism in Japan 1467 to 1477
Portuguese visit Japan in 1543
Other Europeans visit Japan
Chinese Admiral Chengo Ho visits East Africa in a great fleet of Chinese
ships. African ships from Mediterranean Region continue 3000 years of trade
and visits to China.
Marco Polo in India 1288 to 1293 A.D.; He visits China in 1269 A.D.
Mongol Dynasty of China 1260 to 1328
Portuguese visit Canton 1517
400's A.D. Romans withdraw troops from parts of Europe. The fall of the
Roman Empire commences in the West.
Europe enters Dark Ages (400's to 711 for Spain/Iberia) 400's to 1000's rest
711 A.D. Black Moors from Senegal led by their General Gabel Tarik, invade
Spain and Portugal. They introduce science, art, technology, agricultural
sciences, animal husbandry, the university and college system, new methods
of maintaining hygiene.
First Arab invasion (white Semitic Arabs) of Spain occurs in the 1000's
Black Moors make Spain Europe's most advanced nation and sets the seeds for
the renaissance in Spain. Spain declines after 1492, when Black Moors and
Arabs, Jews are expelled to Africa and the Americas.
Black Moorish noblemen begin many European aristocratic families (their
heads are usually on the family crests of names such as Moore).
Astrology, mechanics, chemistry, geology, early robotics, optics and many
sciences are introduced by Black Moors.
Charlemagne’s Empire in Western Europe begins in 814 A.D.
1066 A.D. Normans conquer England.
Crusades against Muslims in the Palestine
Black Moors still in Spain, they spread over Europe and contribute to
European cultural development.
Moors build universities in Toledo and Salamanca, Spain.
Moorish Spain flourishes along with Italy. Various massive buildings,
cities, castles, forts are built using African Moorish architecture (still
common in Senegal, Mauritania and Morocco)
1488 Portuguese sail to Africa
Conflicts between Goths and Moors.
Conflicts between Black Moors and Arabs in Spain.
Italian city-states grow in power. They trade with other nations and build
European Renaissance takes back around 1400 to 1600's A.D. due to Black
Moorish technological input and scientific contributions to Spain and the
rest of Europe.
Moors expelled from Spain; many went to southern France and other parts of
Europe, the vast majority return to Africa, others go to the ;Americas or
are shipped there as slaves.
Columbus hears of African voyages to Americas from Moors . In 1492, he sails
to Cape Verde Region (near Senegal) stocks his ships and sails to the
Americas led by his ship's captain, the Christianized Black Moor named
Africans from West Africa sail to the Americas and trade with American
Indians of the Caribbean, South America, Mexico and the Southern U.S.
Africans and Aztecs establish trade during the reign of Quaquapitzuak
(African Presence in Early America: Van Sertima)
Trade in almaizer cloth, iron and glass beads, vegetables and fruits
including corn and cotton, trade in guanin (gold, copper silver alloy.
Africans trade with South America, Colombia and Panama on the very day that
Columbus arrives in the West Indies.
Mandinkas and other Africans continue their centuries-old trade with
Indians. Trade bass in South America, Caribbean , Mexico, California, S.W.
United States, Cahokia region of South East U.S.
Arawak Indians of Caribbean and the Black Kalifunami (ancient Mandinkas
seafarers who sailed to the Americas) unite in West Indies and bring about
new group of people called "Black Caribs.
Inca civilization in Peru; various American Indian kingdoms including Chokia,
Pueblo culture, Black Washitaw Moundbuilders.
Black Jamassee Nation of the South-eastern U.S.
African ships trade with Peru.
1200's A.D. Mongol Caribs attack Arawaks in South America initiating a
period of attacks on Arawaks that lasts until the coming of Columbus in
Columbus in Bahamas looking for gold; Indians tell him that African
merchants were selling gold and cloth in the region and had come to the
region from the Southwest.
1. Civilization or Barbarism, by Cheikh Anta Diop, pub. by Lawrence Hill
Books, Chicago, IL.
2. Egypt Revisited, by Ivan Van Sertima; pub. By Transaction Publishers, New
3. The African Origin of Civilization, by Cheikh Anta Diop; pub. by Lawrence
Hill Books, Chicago, Il. U.S.A
4. Susu Economics: The History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and
Wealth: pub. by 1stbooks Library, Bloomington, Indiana U.S.A.
5. A History of the African-Olmecs; pub by 1stbooks Library, Bloomington,
6. The Black Untouchables of India; pub. by Clarity Press, Atlanta Georgia
7. African Glory by J.C. deGraff-Johnson; after word by John Henrik Clarke:
pub. by Black Classics Press, Baltimore MD. U.S.A
8. African Presence in Early America; by Ivan Van Sertima: Transaction
Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey U.S.A.
9. Pillars of Ethiopian History by William Leo Hansberry: published by
Howard Univ. Press
Washington D.C., U.S.A.
10. Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization, by Anthony T. Browder; pub.
by Institute of Karmic Guidance, Washington D.C. U.S.A
11. General History of Africa Ancient Civilizations of Africa Vol. II,
Edition by James Curry and M. Mokhtar; UNESCO; Universtiy of California
12. The Columbus Conspiracy, by Michael Bradley: pub. by A&B Book
Publishers, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A.
13. The Black Discovery of America, by Michael Bradley: pub by Personal
Library, Toronto, Canada
14. Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Kushite Empire, by Drusilla Dunjee
Houston: published by Black Classis Press, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A
15. Susu and Susunomics: The Theory and Practice of Pan-African Economic,
Racial and Cultural Self-Preservation: pub by
www.iuniverse.com also available at
www.barnesandnoble.com California, U.S.A.
16. 100 Amazing Facts About the Negro, With Complete Proof, by J.A.Rogers:
Helga Rogers Publishers, St. Petersburg, Florida, U.S.A.
NEVER FORGET WHAT HAPPEN
THE GLOBAL AFRICAN COMMUNITY
T R A V E L N O T E S
THE MIGHTY MONUMENTS OF ANGKOR
BY RUNOKO RASHIDI*
DEDICATED TO DR. ALICE WINDOM
"For the complexion of men, they consider black the most beautiful. In all
the kingdoms of the southern region, it is the same."
--Early Chinese Chronicler
On December 7, 1999 I returned to San Antonio, Texas from a two-week
educational tour to Thailand and Cambodia. It was my second trip to Thailand
and my first trip ever to Cambodia. Indeed, until 1999 I never really
thought that I would have a chance to go to Cambodia, and so my trip there
was something of a dream come true.
Quite naturally the trip was a search for African people. I am particularly
interested in African migrations. We know now, for example, that the first
humanity emerged from Africa and that streams of African people have
continued to flow across the world from ancient to modern times. It is
therefore very important for us to address the questions of exactly where
did those Africans go, what did they do when they got there and what has
subsequently happened to them. I consider such an approach Pan-African in
its nature, African-centered in character and an earnest attempt to reunite
a family of people separated far too long.
THE KHMERS OF ANGKOR
The most prominent and enduring kingdom of early Southeast Asia was Angkor
(ca. 800-1431), located primarily in Cambodia. The builders of Angkor were
an Africoid people known as Khmers--a name that loudly recalls ancient Kmt (pharaonic
Egypt). Noted Harvard anthropologist Roland Burrage Dixon wrote that the
Khmers were physically "marked by distinctly short stature, dark skin, curly
or even frizzy hair, broad noses and thick Negroid lips." In remote
antiquity the Khmers established themselves throughout a vast
area that encompassed portions of Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia,
Malaysia, Vietnam and Laos.
The Khmers of Angkor were sophisticated agriculturalists, aggressive
merchants and intrepid warriors. They created a splendid irrigation system
with some canals as long as forty miles. They engaged in extensive and
ongoing commerce with India and China. For purposes of war they had machines
designed to hurl heavy arrows and sharp spears at their enemies, and rode
into battle atop ornately decorated elephants.
In the Khmer language, Angkor means "the city" or "the capital." In 889 king
Yasovarman I constructed his capital on the current site of Angkor, and over
the centuries consecutive Hindu and Buddhist Khmer kings augmented the city
with their own distinct contributions. Angkor eventually covered an expanse
of 77 square miles and was designed to be completely self-sufficient. The
Khmers were magnificent builders in stone, and for more than six hundred
years, successive Khmer dynasties commissioned the construction of
stupendous temple islands, marvelous artificial lakes and incomparable
temple mountains, including Angkor Wat--the crown jewel of Angkor, estimated
to contain as much stone as the Dynasty IV pyramid of king Khafre in Old
My first full day in Cambodia began with a morning tour of the regal Angkor
Wat temple. The temple of Angkor Wat, the most famous of Khmer stone
structures, is truly magnificent to gaze upon and took a grand total of 37
years to build. During this period the millions of tons of sandstone used in
the temple's construction were transported to the site by river raft from a
quarry at Mount Kulen, 25 miles to the
northeast. Angkor Wat rises in three successive stages up to five central
towers that represent the peaks of Mount Meru--the cosmic or world mountain
that lies at the center of the universe in Hindu mythology and considered
the celestial residence of the Hindu pantheon. The towers of Angkor Wat, the
tallest of which rises about 200 feet above the surrounding flatlands, are
Cambodia's national symbol. The temple's outer walls represent the mountains
at the edge of the world, while the moat surrounding the temple represents
the oceans beyond.
The Angkor Wat temple dates from the twelfth century reign of Suryavarman II
(1113-1150). This was a time when the Khmer dominion over Southeast Asia was
at its very pinnacle, with an empire known as Kambuja "stretching from the
South China Sea to modern Thailand, as far north as the uplands of Laos and
as far south as the Malay Peninsula. King Suryavarman II built it as a
funerary temple for himself, and dedicated it to the Hindu god Vishnu, whom
the king represented on Earth and with whom he integrated on his death."
Angkor Wat is decorated throughout with intricate bas-reliefs depicting
stories from the epic Hindu poems, the Mahabrarata and the Ramayana, with
marching armies, fantastic demons and vivid and sensual depictions of the
celestial female dancers of the Khmers known as "apsaras." French architect
and archaeologist Henri Parmentier gave his opinion of the apsaras of Angkor
Wat in 1923 when he said that "to me they are Grace personified, the highest
expression of femininity ever conceived by the human mind." During the era
of Khmer rule over Cambodia a walk to the center of Angkor Wat was a
metaphorical trip of the spirit to the center of the universe.
FOR MORE INFORMATION GO TO: African Presence in Early Asia, edited by Runoko
Rashidi and Ivan Van Sertima
*RUNOKO RASHIDI is an historian, lecturer, research specialist and global
traveler. He is always in search of African people and is currently
organizing a major tour to Southeast Asia in April 2005. For more
information on the tour, to schedule lectures and order audio and video
tapes contact Runoko at Runoko@yahoo.com or call Runoko at 210 337-4405. And
visit Runoko's award winning web site at http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html
GANDHI & RACISM
Here you will see Gandhi's racist views towards the blacks.
SUMMARY: To understand Gandhi's role towards the blacks, one requires a
knowledge of Hinduism. Within the constraints, a few words on Hinduism will
suffice: The caste is the bedrock of Hinduism. The Hindu term for caste is
varna; which means arranging the society on a four-level hierarchy based on
the skin color: The darker-skinned relegated to the lowest level, the
lighter-skinned to the top three levels of the apartheid scale called the
Caste System. The race factor underlies the intricate workings of Hinduism,
not to mention the countless evil practices embedded within. Have no doubt,
Gandhi loved the Caste system.
Gandhi lived in South Africa for roughly twenty one years from 1893 to 1914.
In 1906, he joined the military with a rank of Sergeant-Major and actively
participated in the war against the blacks. Gandhi's racist ideas are also
evident in his writings of these periods. One should ask a question : Were
our American Black leaders including Dr. King aware of Gandhi's anti-black
activities? Painfully, we have researched the literature and the answer is,
no. For this lapse, the blame lies on the Afro-American newspapers which
portrayed Gandhi in ever glowing terms, setting the stage for
African-American leaders Howard Thurman, Sue Baily Thurman, Reverend Edward
Carroll, Benjamin E. Mays, Channing H. Tobias, and William Stuart Nelson to
visit India at different time periods to meet Gandhi in person. None of
these leaders had any deeper understanding of Hinduism, British India, or
the complexities of Gandhi's convoluted multi-layered Hindu mind. Frankly
speaking, these leaders were !
no match to Gandhi's deceit; Gandhi hoodwinked them all, and that too, with
great ease. Understanding of Hindu India with our black leaders never really
improved even considering years later in March 1959, much after Gandhi's
death, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., his wife, and Professor Lawrence D.
Reddick visited India and to our way of analysis, they fared no better than
their predecessors. We are certain, had Dr. King known Gandhi's anti-black
and other criminal activities, he would have distanced his civil-rights
movement away from the name of Gandhi. We recommend the following:
1. Grenier, Richard. The Gandhi Nobody Knows published in Commentary March
1983; pages 59 to 72. This is the best article on Gandhi briefly outlining
his war activities against the blacks.
2. Kapur, Sudarshan. Raising up a Prophet: The African-American Encounter
with Gandhi; Boston: Beacon Press, 1992 Excellent research book into the
perspective of distant American blacks with respect to their new hero,
Gandhi. However, this book has one major flaw: The author seems to be
unaware of Gandhi's anti-black activities in South Africa.
3. Huq, Fazlul. Gandhi: Saint or Sinner? Bangalore: Dalit Sahitya Akademy,
Superb book. Really gets into the Gandhi's anti-black ideology with a sense
of history setting intact. This book can be purchased from the International
Dalit Support Group, P.O Box 842066, Houston, Tx 77284-2066.
This book's second chapteróGandhi's Anti-African Racismóis a superb analysis
of Gandhi's anti-black thinking. We bring to you the whole chapter for your
Gandhi was not a whit less racist than the white racists of South Africa.
When Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress on August 22, 1894, the no. 1
objective he declared was: "To promote concord and harmony among the Indians
and Europeans in the Colony." [Collected Works (CW)1 pp. 132-33]
He launched his Indian Opinion on June 4 1904: "The object of Indian Opinion
was to bring the European and the Indian subjects of the King Edward closer
together." (CW. IV P. 320)
What was the harm in making an effort to bring understanding among all
people, irrespective of colour, creed or religion? Did not Gandhi know that
a huge population of blacks and coloured lived there? Perhaps to Gandhi they
were less than human beings.
Addressing a public meeting in Bombay on Sept. 26 1896 (CW II p. 74), Gandhi
Ours is one continued struggle against degradation sought to be inflicted
upon us by the European, who desire to degrade us to the level of the raw
Kaffir, whose occupation is hunting and whose sole ambition is to collect a
certain number of cattle to buy a wife with, and then pass his life in
indolence and nakedness.
In 1904, he wrote (CW. IV p. 193):
It is one thing to register natives who would not work, and whom it is very
difficult to find out if they absent themselves, but it is another thingó-and
most insultingó-to expect decent, hard-working, and respectable Indians,
whose only fault is that they work too much, to have themselves registered
and carry with them registration badges.
In its editorial on the Natal Municipal Corporation Bill, the Indian Opinion
of March 18 1905 wrote:
Clause 200 makes provision for registration of persons belonging to
uncivilized races (meaning the local Africans), resident and employed within
the Borough. One can understand the necessity of registration of Kaffirs who
will not work, but why should registration be required for indentured
Indians who have become free, and for their descendants about whom the
general complaint is that they work too much? (Italic portion is added)
The Indian Opinion published an editorial on September 9 1905 under the
heading, "The relative Value of the Natives and the Indians in Natal". In it
Gandhi referred to a speech made by Rev. Dube, a most accomplished African,
who said that an African had the capacity for improvement, if only the
Colonials would look upon him as better than dirt, and give him a chance to
develop self-respect. Gandhi suggested that "A little judicious extra
taxation would do no harm; in the majority of cases it compels the native to
work for at least a few days a year." Then he added:
Now let us turn our attention to another and entirely unrepresented
communityó-the Indian. He is in striking contrast with the native. While the
native has been of little benefit to the State, it owes its prosperity
largely to the Indians. While native loafers abound on every side, that
species of humanity is almost unknown among Indians here.
Nothing could be further from the truth, that Gandhi fought against
Apartheid, which many propagandists in later years wanted people to believe.
He was all in favour of continuation of white domination and oppression of
the blacks in South Africa.
In the Government Gazette of Natal for Feb. 28 1905, a Bill was published
regulating the use of fire-arms by the natives and Asiatics. Commenting on
the Bill, the Indian Opinion of March 25 1905 stated:
In this instance of the fire-arms, the Asiatic has been most improperly
bracketed with the natives. The British Indian does not need any such
restrictions as are imposed by the Bill on the natives regarding the
carrying of fire-arms. The prominent race can remain so by preventing the
native from arming himself. Is there a slightest vestige of justification
for so preventing the British Indian?
Here is the budding Mahatma telling the white racists how they can
perpetuate their Nazi domination over the vast majority of Africans.
In the British imperialist scheme, one important strategy was to divide and
rule. Gandhi advised Indians not to align with other political groups in
either coloured or African communities. In 1906 the coloured people in the
colonies of Good Hope, the Transvaal and the Orange River colony, addressed
a petition to the King Emperor demanding franchise rights. The petitioners
showed clearly that, in one part of South Africa, namely the Cape of Good
Hope, they had enjoyed the franchise ever since the introduction of
Commenting on the petition, the Indian Opinion of March 24 1906, declaring
that "British Indians have, in order that they may never be misunderstood,
made it clear that they do not aspire to any political power," added:
It seems that the petition is being widely circulated, and signatures are
being taken of all coloured people in the three colonies named. The petition
is non-Indian in character, although British Indians, being coloured people,
are very largely affected by it. We consider that it was a wise policy on
the part of the British Indians throughout South Africa, to have kept
themselves apart and distinct from the other coloured communities in this
In a statement made in 1906 to the Constitution Committee, the British
Indian Association led by Gandhi (CW. V p.335) said:
The British Indian Association has always admitted the principle of white
domination and has, therefore, no desire, on behalf of the community it
represents, for any political rights just for the sake of them.
Commenting on a court case, the Indian Opinion of June 2 1906, in its
Gujrati section, stated:
You say that the magistrate's decision is unsatisfactory because it would
enable a person, however unclean, to travel by a tram, and that even the
Kaffirs would be able to do so. But the magistrate's decision is quite
different. The Court declared that the Kaffirs have no legal right to travel
by tram. And according to tram regulations, those in an unclean dress or in
a drunken state are prohibited from boarding a tram. Thanks to the Court's
decision, only clean Indians (meaning upper caste Hindu Indians) or coloured
people other than Kaffirs, can now travel in the trams. (Italic portion is
Apartheid defended: Gandhi accepted racial segregation, not only because it
was politically expedient as his Imperial masters had already drawn such a
blueprint, it also conformed with his own attitude to the caste system. In
his own mind he fitted Apartheid into the caste system: whites in the
position of Brahmins, Indian merchants and professionals as Sudras, and all
other non-whites as Untouchables.
Though Gandhi was strongly opposed to the comingling of races, the
working-class Indians did not share his distaste. There were many areas
where Indians, Chinese, Coloured, Africans and poor whites lived together.
On February 15 1905, Gandhi wrote to Dr. Porter, the Medical Officer of
Health, Johannesburg (CW. IV p.244, and "Indian Opinion" 9 April 1904):
Why, of all places in Johannesburg, the Indian location should be chosen for
dumping down all kaffirs of the town, passes my comprehension.
Of course, under my suggestion, the Town Council must withdraw the Kaffirs
from the Location. About this mixing of the Kaffirs with the Indians I must
confess I feel most strongly. I think it is very unfair to the Indian
population, and it is an undue tax on even the proverbial patience of my
Dr. Porter replied that it was the Indians who sub-let to Africans.
Commenting on the White League's agitation, Gandhi wrote in his Indian
Opinion of September 24 1903:
We believe as much in the purity of race as we think they do, only we
believe that they would best serve these interests, which are as dear to us
as to them, by advocating the purity of all races, and not one alone. We
believe also that the white race of South Africa should be the predominating
Again, on December 24 1903, Indian Opinion stated:
The petition dwells upon `the comingling of the coloured and white races'.
May we inform the members of the Conference that so far as British Indians
are concerned, such a thing is particularly unknown. If there is one thing
which the Indian cherishes more than any other, it is the purity of type.
In his farewell speech at a meeting held in the house of Dr. Gool in
Capetown, which was reported in the Indian Opinion of July 1 1914, Gandhi
The Indians knew perfectly well which was the dominant and governing race.
They aspired to no social equality with Europeans. They felt that the path
of their development was separate. They did not even aspire to the
franchise, or, if the aspiration exists, it was with no idea of its having a
Gandhi joined in the orgy of Zulu slaughter when the Bambata Rebellion broke
out. It is essential to discuss the background of the Bambata Rebellion, to
place Gandhi's Nazi war crime in its proper perspective.
The Bambatta Rebellion--Background
The spiritual foundation of Nazism was the superiority of the Aryan race or
its modern version, the Anglo-Saxon race. When Disraeli was Prime Minister,
Britain enunciated a doctrine, like the Monroe Doctrine, warning other
European powers that Africa would be a British preserve, and that from the
Cape to the Limpopo, if not to Cairo, only white people would have local
political power. Successive British Governments pursued this policy.
In the 1870s, the Zulu Kingdom was by far the most powerful African State of
the Limpopo. Cetewayo, who succeeded his father in 1872, was an able and
popular ruler. He united the kingdom and built up a most efficient army. He
followed a policy of alliance with the British Colony of Natal. The Zulu
Kingdom and the Boer Republic of the Transvaal had been feuding for a long
time. The Zulus were defeated twice by the Boers, in 1838 and 1840. By 1877
Cetewayo was ready to invade the Transvaal. But the British stepped in and
annexed the Transvaal in 1877, only to prevent Cetewayo from doing it first
and becoming powerful and a challenge to white supremacy.
Some contemporary reports throw light on the relative strength of the Zulus
and their Boer enemies. Colonel A.W. Durnford wrote in a memorandum on July
5 ("The Secret History of South Africa" by Abercrombe. The Central News
Agency Ltd., Johannesburg South Africa. 1951 p.6):
About this time (April 10th) Cetewayo had massed his forces in three corps
on the borders, and would undoubtedly have swept the Transvaal, at least up
to the Vaal River if not to Pretoria itself, had the country not been taken
over by the English. In my opinion he would have cleared the country to
Shepstone, the British Administrator, himself wrote concerning the reality
of the danger on Dec. 25 1877:
The Boers are still flying, and I think by this time there must be a belt of
more than a hundred miles long and thirty broad in which, with three
insignificant exceptions, there is nothing but absolute desolation. This
will give some idea of the mischief which Cetewayo's conduct has
The above facts explode the myth that the British protected the Zulus from
British barbarity on Blacks: After annexing the Transvaal, Shepstone turned
his attention to destroying all the independent African states in that
region, particularly the Zulu Kingdom. Before annexation of the Transvaal,
Shepstone sided with the Zulus in their border disputes with the Transvaal.
After annexation he made a volte-face and used those disputes as excuses to
invade Zululand. The British public was told that the Zulu War was to
liberate the Zulu people from a tyrannical ruler, and South Africa from a
menace to "christianity and civilisation".
In 1879, the British invaded the Zulu Kingdom and defeated Cetawayo. Then
they started their complete subjugation. First the army was broken, thus
destroying their ability to defend themselves. The country was then split
into thirteen separate units under the nominal control of the chiefs,
salaried by the Government. The white magistrates supplanted the chiefs as
the most powerful men in their districts. Most important of all, the land
was partitioned. Before the war, Shepstone had expressed the hope that
Cetewayo's warriors would be "changed to labourers working for wages". It
makes a sad story, how this was accomplished. In 1902-4, the Land Commission
delineated a number of locations for the Zulus, and threw open the rest of
the country to white settlement. Out of a total acreage of more than 12
million acres, the Africans held some 2 million acres. They numbered, at the
lowest reckoning, over three hundred thousand. The Europeans, who were less
than 20,000, owned most of !
the best land. A large proportion of the African population was forced to
live upon land to which it had no legal claim. Where the Africans lived upon
private or crown lands, they lived there entirely upon sufferance and
without legal title. By this time, other independent African states in that
region were also destroyed by the British army. Wheresoever, they marched,
in Basutoland, Zululand or Bechuanaland, the Queen's horses and the Queen's
men were like unto a "Salvation Army" ministering to the welfare of the
colonists. The sufferers were the Africans.
Gandhi wrote in his Satyagraha in South Africa (p.15):
The Boers are simple, frank and religious. They settle in the midst of
extensive farms. We can have no idea of the extent of these farms. A farm
with us means generally an acre or two, and sometimes even less. In South
Africa, a single farmer has hundreds or thousands of acres of land in his
possession. He is not anxious to put all this under cultivation at once, and
if any one argues with him he will say, `Let it lie fallow; lands which are
now fallow will be cultivated by our children'.
Also in his Indian Opinion (March 15 1913), he wrote:
General Botha has thousands of acres of land ... (there is) a big company in
Natal which has hundreds of thousands of acres of land.
Thou shalt not steal but rob.
It did not seem to occur to Gandhi how these people came into possession of
thousands of acres of land, whereas Africans were cooped in locations like
chicken in pens.
Grabbing the land was not enough: it needed manpower to cultivate that land.
The cry of the farmers was for labour. Naturally it found a favourite
response from Shepstone, whose dream it was to convert Cetewayo's warriors
into labourers for white men. His native policy was to meet the demands of
the European farmers. He agreed that Europeans could not expand or grow in
wealth unless they could draw more fully upon the reservoirs of labour in
the African reserves.
In the process of European colonisation, the swiftly expanding land-hungry
Europeans turned the bulk of the African population into a proletariat. Due
to the congestion and landlessness in the reserves, created deliberately by
the white rulers, their agricultural return was not sufficient for bare
existence. Then there were the taxes on huts, cattle and what not. On the
other hand, working for white men did not provide them with adequate
sustenance. In Natal, the sugar farmers of the coast relied upon the Indian
indentured labour, whereas the stock farmers of the interior relied
exclusively on Africans, and regarded the failure of Africans to work for
them as a criminal offence. In a report to the Chief Commissioner of Police
in 1903, the Police Inspector W.F. Fairley wrote: "With regard to crime, the
principal complaints made by Dutch farmers to patrols was of the refusal to
work on the part of the natives." (Department Reports 1903 p.67 cited
"Reluctant Rebellion" by Marks!
p.17. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1970). Complaints about the shortage of
African labour were voiced in all parts of the country. The farmers were
later joined by the mining industries. The most obvious change was the
broadening of the economic base from being entirely agricultural to one in
which mining played a more and more important part. Diamond, gold, coal
became major industries, and with this development, the deeper involvement
of the big finance houses, particularly Rothschilds. So the fate of the
Africans as the source of cheap labour, and the fat dividends derived from
mining by the British ruling class, became interlinked. This still continues
in a modified form. Now it is Anglo-American corporations.
Cheap labour from India: Europeans assumed that Africans lived only to meet
their requirements of cheap labour, and as such they had no right to
establish themselves as self-sufficient and independent farmers because this
conflicted with European interests. Famines in India facilitates the
recruitment of indentured Indian labourers for white employers in the
Colonies. It was no different in relation to Africans. In a Report of the
Native Affairs Commission, (Native Affairs Commission Report 1939-40 cited
"Oxford History of South Africa" p.182. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1969) it
was admitted that "African reserves were regarded by whites as reservoirs of
labour, and congestion, landlessness and crop failure were welcomed as
stimulants to the labour supply". Similar situations among whites were
viewed as national calamities. The Government lent millions of pounds to
white farmers, gave them tax relief in times of famine, paid subsidies,
facilitated the export of their produce, !
and wrote off their debts. But what about Africans? Famine would be rampant,
crops ruined, food exhausted, thousands of Africans and their cattle would
starve to death, but the government would not raise a finger.
The whites not only stole the land from the Africans, and used them as cheap
labour, but also looked to them for revenue. They drew a relatively large
and growing income from the Africans. "The Native population of Natal",
Shepstone admitted ("Imperial Factor" by De Kieweit p.193. Clarendon Press,
Oxford 1970), "contribute to the revenue annually a sum equal, at least, to
that necessary to maintain the whole fixed establishment of the Colony for
the government of the whites as well as themselves." Taxation is a financial
measure to gather revenue to meet the expenditure of the state. But in South
Africa it was used to reduce Africans to slavery. The sole motive behind the
extra taxation imposed on Africans was to force the Africans to work on
terms dictated by the whites.
Always there was resentment against any measure which would allow the
Africans to settle in locations instead of keeping them as labourers. It was
not only the farmers' conferences, the press owned by the mining magnates
joined the outcry of the farmers to enact special laws to compel the
Africans to come out of their locations and work for the whites. The press
was in the forefront to arouse the sentiments that Africans not in European
service were necessarily living in idleness. Gandhi's Indian Opinion played
second fiddle to the white press in this respect. To Gandhi, the imposition
of taxes upon the Africans to compel them to work for the white employers
was "gentle persuasion".
By a stroke of the pen, the major part of the available land was taken away
from the Zulus and given to Europeans. Some of the dispossessed Zulus were
allotted locations and others remained on the land of European landlords on
sufferance. Bambata was one of these unfortunate chiefs. He became Chief in
1890 and he and his people were placed in private locations on very high
rents. The land was useless for any agricultural purpose. To make things
worse, the Boer farmers suspected Bambata of informing the British about
their pro-Boer activities, and naturally they tried to victimise him and his
people. But after the war, the British rulers leaned backwards and went out
of their way to kiss and hug the Boers. So Bambata was caught in a cleft
stick. By 1905 the tension between Bambata and his white landlords reached
crisis point. The Assistant Magistrate of Greytown, H. Von Gerard, wrote to
the Under Secretary of Native Affairs recommending the allocation of a
location for his pe!
ople. Gerard described how people were being oppressed and squeezed by the
landlords, what useless land it was for agricultural purposes, and how
summons after summons was being issued against people who were unable to pay
high rents. Finally he remarked ("Reluctant Rebellion" by Marks. P.201):
A most desperate state of affairs, the more so as there seems no remedy for
it....My sympathies with Bambata's people...but I see no way out of the
The military and civilian leaders of Natal were consciously developing a
picture as if an uprising was imminent. Not that they could foresee one, but
they wanted to foresee one because that would give them a golden opportunity
to inflict severe punishments on Zulus who, according to the colonists, were
growing insolent. They drew up a plan to deal with this imaginary uprising
swiftly, and all agreed that was the way they could save not only Natal but
North Africa from the "barbarities which only the savage mind can conceive."
(Ibid p. Xvii)
Zulu Revolt: But outside Natal, people were not so sure. Styne, President of
the Orange Free State, called it "hysteria". Smuts, Botha and Merriman
expressed concern as to whether the whites of Natal would spur a rebellion.
Some churchmen and many radical humanitarians in Natal, as well as England,
produced volumes of irrefutable evidence proving that it was a conspiracy to
goad the Zulus into rebellion and then massacre them. In this, Hariette
Colenso, the famous daughter of a famous father, Bishop Colenso, made the
most outstanding contribution. There was a cry of imminent native revolt in
the press long before active rebellion broke out.
As far back as 1902, Lieu. G.A. Mills in his report (GH18/02. Cited
"Reluctant Rebellion" p.158) to the Chief of Staff, Natal, on July 1
Every Boer expresses the most bitter hatred of the Zulus. They all express a
wish that the Zulus would rise now while the British troops are in the
country so that they may be practically wiped out. The Boers all say that in
the event of the rising, every one of them would join the British troops in
order to have a chance of paying off old scores against the Zulus. When I
first came here, I visited farms and asked the Boers what they thought of
the advisability of keeping troops here. They all said it was most
necessary, as they were afraid of the Kaffirs and it would not be safe to
stay on their farms if the troops withdrew.... Taking everything into
consideration, I cannot help being forced to the opinion that many Boers
intend to provoke a Zulu rising if they can do so.
It was Colonel Mackenzie, the military supremo before the rebellion, who was
prophesying a native uprising and cleaning the barrels of his guns to use
the "golden opportunity" to inflict "the most drastic punishment" on leading
natives he found guilty of treason, and to "instill a proper respect for the
white man". (C.O. 179/233/12460. Dispatch 9.3.06 cited "Reluctant Rebellion"
On June 14, Charles Saunders, Chief Magistrate and Civil Commissioner in
Zululand (1899-1909) wrote to C.J. Hignet, the magistrate of Nqutu
("Reluctant Rebellion" p.241):
I quite agree with your conclusions as to our men trying to goad the whole
population into rebellion, and you have no idea of the difficulties we had
in Nkandha in trying to protect people one knew perfectly well were faithful
In his communication of July 10 1906 to the Prime Minister, (PM 61/15/66
Governor to PM 10.7.06) the Governor described the "sweeping actions and the
mopping-up operations as continued slaughter. Fred Graham, a permanent civil
servant in the Colonial Office, in his Minute of July 10, described it as
Nazism & racism: The most revealing was the long letter of July 24 1906 (CO
179/236/24787 minute 10-7-06) sent by the Anglican Archdeacon, Charles
Johnson, from St. Augustine's in Nqutu division, to the Society for the
Propagation of the Gospels in London. He was a man of the British
establishment and not known to have excessive zeal for standing up for the
rights of the Africans. He wrote (cited "Reluctant Rebellion" p. 241):
Many thinking people have been asking themselves, what are we going to do
with his teeming population? Some strong-handed men have thought the time
was ripe for solving the great question. They knew that there was a general
widespread spirit of disaffection among the natives of Natal, the Free State
and the Transvaal, but specially in Natal, and they commenced the
suppression of the rebellion in the fierce hope that the rebellion might so
spread throughout the land and engender a war of practical extermination. I
fully believe that they were imbued with the conviction that this was the
only safe way of dealing with the native question, and they are greatly
disappointed that the spirit of rebellion was not strong enough to bring
more than a moiety of the native peoples under the influence of the rifle.
Over and over again it was said, `They are only sitting on the fence, it
shall be our endeavour to bring them over'; and again, speaking of the big
chiefs, `We must endeavour t!
o bring them in if possible! Yes, they have been honest and outspoken
enoughó-the wish being father to the thoughtó-they prophesied the rebellion
would spread throughout South Africa; had they been true prophets, no doubt
the necessity of solving the native question would have been solved for this
generation at least.
John Merriman was a veteran Cape politician. He was one of those so-called
liberals who accepted Nazism as a doctrine, or in other words Anglo-Saxon
superiority, but regretted its consequent atrocities and thus fumigated
their consciences. He wrote to Goldwin Smith (Merriman papers NHo. 202,
16.9.06 cited "Reluctant Rebellion" p.246) in September 1906:
We have had a horrible business in Natal with the natives. I suppose the
whole truth will never be known, but enough comes out to make us see how
thin the crust is that keeps our christian civilisation from the
old-fashioned savageryómachine-guns and modern rifles against knobsticks and
assagais are heavy odds and do not add much to the glory of the superior
In the letter of the Archdeacon the expression "practical extermination",
and in a letter of Lieutenant Mills "practically wiped out", have been used.
This was what the German Nazis wanted to do to the Jews: to exterminate
them. Does it make any difference whether the victims of racial slaughter
are Jews or blacks?
Conspiracy to massacre Blacks: Gandhi was well aware of the conspiracy to
massacre the Africans. When there was war hysteria in the colonial press,
this prophet of non-violence did not apply his mind as to how to stop such a
conflict. On the contrary, he did not want Indians to be left behind, but
wanted them to take a full part in this genocide.
In his editorial in the Indian Opinion of Nov. 18 1905, long before the
actual rebellion broke out, Gandhi complained that the Government simply did
not wish to give Indians an opportunity of showing that they were as capable
as any other community of taking their share in the defence of the colony.
He suggested that a volunteer corps should be formed from colonial-born
Indians, which would be useful in actual service.
Indentured Indians lived in conditions worse than slavery. Gandhi during his
20 years' stay in South Africa, did not raise a finger to ease their
sufferings. But he was quick to suggest using them as cannon fodder for
racists against Africans.
In his Indian Opinion in Dec. 2 1905 he referred to Law 25 of 1875 which was
specially passed to increase "the maximum strength of the volunteer force in
the colony adding thereto a force of Indian immigrant volunteer infantry".
To assure the Europeans that such Indians would only kill Africans, he
pointed out that "section 83 of the Militia Act states that no ordinary
member of the coloured contingent shall be armed with weapons of precision,
unless such contingent is called to operate against other than Europeans".
Gandhi defends massacre: Many years later, he wrote (p.233) in his
The Boer War had not brought home to me the horrors of war with anything
like the vividness that the `rebellion' did. This was no war but a man-hunt,
not only in my opinion but also in that of many Englishmen with whom I had
occasion to talk. To hear every morning reports of the soldiers' rifles
exploding like crackers in innocent hamlets, and to live in the midst of
them, was a trial.
Then to justify his participation in this massacre, he went on
(Autobiography p. 231):
I bore no grudge against the Zulus, they had harmed no Indian. I had doubts
about the `rebellion' itself, but I then believed that the British Empire
existed for the welfare of the world. A genuine sense of loyalty prevented
me from even wishing ill to the Empire. The righteness or otherwise of the
`rebellion' was therefore not likely to affect my decision.
What about the Nazi war criminals? Did they not have a genuine sense of
loyalty to Hitler and Nazism?
In Great Britain another storm of protest was raised against the atrocities
perpetrated in Natal. The only time Gandhi mentioned the Zulu suppression
was on August 4 1906, when he wrote in his Indian Opinion:
A controversy is going on in England about what the Natal Army did during
the Kaffir rebellion. The people here believe that the whites of Natal
perpetrated great atrocities on the Kaffirs. In reply to such critics, the
Star has pointed to the doings of the Imperial Army in Egypt. Those among
the Egyptian rebels who had been captured were ordered to be flogged. The
flogging was continued to the limits of the victim's endurance; it took
place in public and was watched by thousands of people. Those sentenced to
death were also hanged at the same time. While those sentenced to death were
hanging, the flogging of others was taken up. While the sentences were being
executed, the relatives of the victims cried and wept until many of them
swooned. If this is true, there is no reason why there should be such an
outcry in England against Natal outrages.
One may notice that the article was very cleverly written. First Gandhi
stated that people in England believed that the whites of Natal perpetrated
great atrocities on Africans, as if he himself did not know what happened,
and also gave the impression that it was the local Natal Army and not the
Imperial Army which was involved in the atrocities, which is not true. Even
at this stage, he was not willing to tell the simple truth, that atrocities
were committed. Then he borrowed the description of hanging and flogging in
Egypt from the Star as if he did not know about that either. Did or did not
Gandhi know that those Egyptians were not common criminals to be flogged and
hangedóthat they were the patriots, the flowers of the Egyptian nation?
If Gandhi unequivocally accepted or found out that the Imperial Army
committed those atrocities, then he could not claim that he believed the
British Empire existed for the welfare of mankind. The last and the vilest
of all was the subtle suggestion that if the Imperial Army did what they
were accused of doing, then there was no reason why there should be such an
outcry in England against the Natal outrage. Why could this
Imperialist-manufactured Mahatma not say clearly that both were crimes
"I would rather be a member of this [Afrikan] race than a Greek in the time
of Alexander, a Roman in the Augustan period, or Anglo-Saxon in the
nineteenth century." - Edward Wilmot Blyden
"However much we may detest admitting it, the fact remains that there would
be no exploitation if people refused to obey the exploiter. But self comes
in and we hug the chains that bind us. This must cease." - Mohandas Gandhi
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(REVISED EXPANDED EDITION) THE GLOBAL AFRICAN
COMMUNITY TRAVEL NOTES: SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AND THE AFRICAN PRESENCE IN EARLY
BY RUNOKO RASHIDI*
DEDICATED TO DR. IVAN VAN SERTIMA
"At the time that the twelve African Christian martyrs died in A.D. 180
there were living two great African personages: Septimius Severus, who later
became Emperor of Rome; and Tertullian, one of the greatest of Church
--J.C. DeGraft-Johnson, African Glory
Of my recent travels in Europe I suppose that it is appropriate that we
start with Rome, for it was to Rome that I flew to on the first leg of my
European journeys that began in January 2003. And so it was, that after
connecting flights from New York to London to Amsterdam to Rome's Leonardo
Da Vinci Airport, and a late night check in at the Royal Gambrinus Hotel in
the city center, I was ready to begin my tour of eternal Rome--one of the
world's most celebrated cities.
Actually I had not even planned to visit Rome at the time. I thought that I
had secured a speaking engagement in Stockholm through some African brothers
in Sweden, but when that fell through and with time in Europe on my hands,
Rome became an attractive prospective destination. And much to my delight, I
found that someone special would be looking out for me when I got there and
that was none other than Samia Nkrumah--Kwame Nkrumah's youngest daughter!
During the course of several days I really came to like sister Samia and not
only because of her father. She was described to me even before the trip not
just as "the only daughter of Kwame Nkrumah. She is a bright, young, and
very energetic political journalist, who I am sure can give you some insight
during your tour!"
Indeed, Samia turned out to be a beautiful and charming and really good
sister, and I enjoyed her company immensely. She even arranged for me to
give a slide presentation at a local bookstore and you know I liked that! So
I not only visited Rome but lectured there also! And the lecture, translated
by Samia's husband, was followed by dinner, coffee, cocktails and
conversation that lasted well into the night, Thanks so much sister Samia.
for she was a sort of African oasis in a kind of Roman desert, as I saw only
a scattering of other Africans during my visit, mostly Somalis and
Ethiopians, a handful of Algerians, Moroccans and Tunisians, a few
Senegalese, one brother from Ireland and an occasional African-American
As stated earlier, the attraction that Rome had for me was her vast store of
antiquities and there was really far too much to be taken in during the
course of a week's time. But I did get to see a bunch of wonderful sites and
monuments that ranged from the Roman Coliseum to Trajan's Column, to the
Baths of Caracalla, to the City Walls, to the Imperial Forums, to the Circus
Maximus, to the Pantheon, to the Pyramid of Caius Cestius, to the obelisks
of Thutmose III and Ramses II and quite a few other places too. These were
all impressive structures and I was happy to see and photograph them but I
must say that as a whole they paled in comparison to the mighty monuments of
ancient Egypt. I also visited and glanced at, although it was heavily
scaffolded, the great Axumite obelisk taken to Rome from Ethiopia by the
Italians during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia from 1935 to 1941 and
waiting for its long overdue return to Mother Africa.
And of course I went to all of the major museums in Rome. These museums
included the Vatican Museums, the Capitolini Museum, the Etruscan Museum and
at least two national museums--the Palazzo Massimo Alle Terme and the Museo
The Vatican Museums have a vast collection that includes a number of
excellent Greek and Roman pieces and some exquisite pieces from ancient
Egypt, including a larger than life statue of Queen Tuya (wife of Seti I and
mother of Ramses II) of Dynasty Nineteen. The statue was originally in
Ramses II's mortuary temple (The Ramesseum) only to be taken from Egypt to
Rome by Emperor Caligula.
The Capitolini Museum, with its stunning collection of marbles and described
as the "oldest public collection of ancient artworks in the world", also has
a set of ancient Egyptian artifacts and a superb image of Diana/Artemis of
Ephesus in the form of a multi-breasted Black fertility goddess. And I must
say, giving credit where it is due, that the Romans worked wonders with
marble and probably the best representations of such works are housed in the
The Etruscan Museum was splendid also and I was able to wander its halls
towards the end of my trip to Rome. The Etruscans were the precursors of the
Romans in Italy and their culture reflects a considerably closer
relationship with ancient Africa than their successors. As in ancient
Egyptian art, the Etruscan men are consistently dark while the Etruscan
women are portrayed much lighter. Etruscan women seem to have enjoyed a
freedom far greater than that of later Roman women, and women and men in
general are frequently portrayed as happy and loving couples in Etruscan
art. I was hard pressed to find anything of the sort among the Romans
There were in the museum, I believe, two or three Etruscan vases with
obviously Africoid faces depicted on them, and one of the more interesting
of the Etruscan exhibits, dated to 275 B.C.E., depicts what appears to be an
DISTINGUISHED AFRICANS IN EARLY ROME
I suppose that you could accurately say that African people can be found
everywhere on the planet in either ancient or modern times or both. And
certainly I had been finding information about the African presence in early
Rome for quite a while now.
Ancient African people, sometimes called Moors, are known to have had a
significant presence and influence in early Rome. African soldiers,
specifically identified as Moors, were actively recruited for Roman military
service and were stationed in Britain, France, Switzerland, Austria,
Hungary, Poland and Romania. Many of these Africans rose to high rank.
Lusius Quietus, for example, was one of Rome's greatest generals and was
named by Roman Emperor Trajan (98-117 C.E.) as his successor. Quietus is
described as a "man of Moorish race and considered the ablest soldier in the
In addition to this background, I also knew that by the end of the second
century of the Christian Era more than one third of all of the members of
the Roman Senate were born in Africa and Africans were dominant in Rome's
intellectual life. And going all of the way back to my first reading of of
Joel Augustus Rogers' World's Great Men of Color I found out about the
African-Roman writer Publius Terentius Afer (190-159 B.C.E.). It was this
African, Terence, who penned the immortal words, "I am a man and nothing
human is alien to me."
THEOLOGIANS, MARTYRS AND SAINTS
In addition to all of the above, I also knew, regarding the African presence
in early Rome, about saints and theologians and martyrs like Tertullian,
Cyprian and Augustine. Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullian, for example,
was the first of the church writers to make Latin the language of
Christianity. Tertullian was born into a rich family in Carthage in 170 C.E.
He wrote Greek and Latin fluently and was "well trained in the school of
rhetoric where Apuleius (another African), had been a pupil a generation
before." Tertullian's wife was a Christian and he himself a convert. A man
of fiery temperament and evangelical spirit, Tertullian is said to have
lived to an advanced age. In 197 C.E., during the reign of Septimius Severus,
Tertullian's Apologia was published.
St. Cyprian is called the "greatest of the bishops of Carthage, the first
African martyr-bishop and the man who, more than anyone, organized the
African Church." His reputation was such that the Churches of Gaul and Spain
appealed to him as an arbiter. Like Tertullian before him, Cyprian was born
of a prosperous family in Carthage in 200 C.E. He eventually held a chair in
rhetoric at Carthage and in middle age, after reading the works of
Tertullian, he converted to Christianity. Following his conversion Cyprian
distributed most of his fortune to the poor. As an orator he was such that
only three years after becoming a Christian he was elected bishop of
Carthage. Sixty of Cyprian's letters have survived as testament to his great
intellectual gifts. On September 14, 258 C.E., St. Cyprian, after paying his
executioner twenty-five gold pieces and surrounded by a large crowd of
Christians, was beheaded.
Susan Raven, in her wonderful book Rome in Africa, refers to St. Augustine,
born in 354 C.E. in Thagaste, North Africa, as "the greatest African."
Augustine was the son of St. Monica and largely because of her desires he
converted to Christianity in 386 C.E. In 395 C.E. he became Bishop of Hippo,
North Africa. His teaching on free will, original sin and the operation of
God's grace has been in illuminated in numerous publications, particularly
in his City of God, published in 397 C.E. St. Augustine died in August 430
C.E. during the Vandal siege of Hippo.
There were at least three African Popes at Rome. St. Victor I became the
first known African bishop of Rome in 189 C.E. and reigned until 199 C.E.
Victor I, the first pope to write in Latin and the first pope known to have
had dealings with the imperial household, is described as "the most forceful
of the 2nd-century popes." According to the late scholar Dr. Edward Vivian
"Although nothing is known of the circumstances of his death he is venerated
as a martyr, and his feast is kept on July the 28th. Today, in the history
of the Roman Church he is remembered, not only for his ruling that Easter
should be celebrated on Sunday, but he has also been named in the canon of
the Ambrosian Mass, and he is said by Saint Jerome to have been the first in
Rome to celebrate the Holy Mysteries in Latin."
St. Miltiades, a Black priest from Africa, was elected the thirty-second
pope after St. Peter in 311 C.E. Under Miltiades, after the issuance of an
edict of tolerance signed by the Emperors Galerius, Licinius and
Constantine, the great persecution of the Christians came to an end and they
were allowed to practice their religion in peace. St. Miltiades is regarded
as a Christian martyr and died in early January 314 C.E.
The third of the African popes and the forty-ninth pope overall was St.
Gelasius I. He was born in Rome of African parents and governed from 492 to
496 C.E. He is described as "famous all over the world for his learning and
holiness" and "more a servant than a sovereign." He died on November 19, 496
C.E. and like St. Victor I and St. Miltiades, St. Gelasius I was canonized.
As a Saint, his Feast-day is held on the 21st of November. Again, according
to Dr. Scobie, "St. Gelasius I has been described as Great even among the
BLACK POWER IN ANCIENT ROME: THE SEVERAN DYNASTY
The crowning highlight of my trip to Rome was the National Roman Museum,
where all of the information that I had been reviewing for all of these
years was validated. For here, on the last day of my trip I found evidence
of an African dynasty at the very height of imperial Rome.
I had been in Rome for almost a week by then, and while it had been for the
most part a pleasant experience I had not made the major and meaningful find
that I had hoped that I would. I had seen no really Africoid images of
Hannibal Barca or any Black Madonna statues or anything like that. And then
it happened. Walking methodically through the museum galleries I gazed into
Room XIII and there it was! Even at a glance I thought that one bust, in
particular, looked strikingly Africoid. I looked closer and read the caption
on the bust. It read Alexander Severus. I was familiar with that name--Severus.
And then I turned around and saw a marvelous bust of Septimius Severus. And
then I saw busts and statues of Septimius' two sons--Geta and Caracalla and
they all looked Africoid too, some more so than others. I had stumbled (or
was I divinely led?) into a room that I had no prior knowledge of filled
with these images of African looking Roman emperors!
This dynasty, known to historians as the Severan Dynasty, began with the
accession to the throne of Septimius Severus in 193 C.E. In actuality,
Septimius shared the throne for two years with Pesennius Niger. Indeed,
could Pesennius Niger, another of Rome's outstanding military commanders,
himself have been an African? His name certainly indicates that possibility.
Records state that Septimius was born in Leptis Magna on the North African
coast (modern day Libya) on April 11 in either 145 or 146 C.E. And Septimius
was not just born in Africa. Numerous pictures, busts and statues of him
show him to be phenotypically Black. Here, I have to say that the
information that I was able to gather in Rome in March 2003 was further
augmented by the acquisition of a color post card of a wood panel of
Septimius Severus and his family, done around 200 C.E., that I obtained
seven months later in the Antiquities Museum in Berlin. Again, there is no
doubt that he was a Black man and the painting itself shows him as what I
would describe as somewhere between copper colored and deep burnished brown.
Young Septimius, coming from a family of Romanized Africans, received a
education rooted in Roman literature and quickly learned to speak Latin.
After his formal education was completed he adopted an official career and
became a civil magistrate. Later, he became a military commander, and this
took him to Rome where he proved himself an able and popular and conscious
Around 199 C.E., six years after becoming emperor, Septimius even journeyed
to Egypt. Can you imagine Emperor Septimius sailing on the Nile? Consider
what he might have thought as he gazed at the pyramids and walked through
the Karnak and Luxor temples.
Around 203 C.E. Septimius had a mighty arch constructed in the Imperial
Forum. This monument is considered one of Italy's most important triumphal
He is even said to have built a marble tomb for Hannibal Barca--early Rome's
African nemesis. Indeed, because of his own African origins, Septimius has
been referred to as "Hannibal's revenge."
After a distinguished career characterized by administration reorganization,
exploits on the battlefield and the intensification of Christian
persecution, Septimius died conducting yet another military campaign, this
one in York in Britain, on February 4, 211 C.E. He was of sixty-five years
old and and had been in poor health, suffering severely from gout, for
years. His reign was seventeen years, eight months and three days and he was
the last Roman emperor to die of natural causes for almost a hundred years.
Septimius Severus was succeeded in 211 C.E. by his sons Lucius Septimius
Geta (211-212 C.E.) and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus aka Caracalla (211-217 C.E.).
These brothers are said to have constantly plotted against one another and
Caracalla finally had Geta murdered in 212 C.E. It was under Caracalla in
212 C.E. that Roman citizenship was granted to all freeborn inhabitants of
the Empire. Caracalla was also responsible for refurbishing roads and the
construction of a triumphal arch in Algeria, as well as his already
mentioned enormous public baths. Caracalla was himself murdered by the
military in 217 C.E.
Geta and Caracalla were followed by the Mauritania born Marcus Opellius
Macrinus (217-218 C.E.), the Praetorian Prefect and the first non-senator to
become emperor. Heliogabalus (218-222 C.E.), said to be either the son or
nephew of Caracalla and a man of dubious character, followed Macrinus, and
then came Severus Alexander (222-235 C.E.), who restored the Roman Coliseum
to its ancient status and with whose thirteen year reign the era of the
Severan domination of Rome came to an end.
This line is known as the Severan Dynasty and the National Roman Museum
busts and statues and sculptures of the representatives of this dynasty
strongly testify to their African identity. They are powerful images and
like many of the statues and busts and sculptures of ancient Egypt I found
the noses missing on all of them save one of Septimius' son Caracalla. And
the face adorning the bust of Severus Alexander, the last member of the
dynasty, is even more Africoid looking than that of Septimius Severus, the
I guess that you say that I was elated and pretty much blown away by my
discovery of the Severan Dynasty, and I was able to leave Rome on a very
high note. Actually the whole trip had been a high note, and as other
horizons beckoned me I thought of my visit to Rome as a very successful
endeavor. I felt good about having gone to Rome. I had seen a part of the
world that until recently I never had serious aspirations about seeing and
had spent an exciting week exploring what was for me a brand new city. I had
lectured there and been well received in yet another country. I had been
hosted and in part accompanied by the youngest daughter of one of our
greatest leaders ever. And I had found that a small cadre of African men had
ruled over the Roman Empire during the height of its imperial glory. Yes,
indeed, this was a most successful trip.
May 10, 2004
*Runoko Rashidi is an African historian and research specialist very much in
love with Africa. He is currently coordinating an educational tour to Peru
scheduled for November 2004. For more information go to Runoko's award
winning Global African Presence Web Site at http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html
THE GLOBAL AFRICAN COMMUNITY TRAVEL NOTES:
ON THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA
BY RUNOKO RASHIDI*
DEDICATED TO JAMES E. BRUNSON AND WAYNE B. CHANDLER
"How do we explain such a large population of Blacks in Southern China,
powerful enough to form a kingdom of their own?"
--Chancellor James Williams, The Destruction of Black Civilization
"Most of the population of modern China--one fifth of all the people living
today--owes its genetic origins to Africa."
--Quoted in the Los Angeles Times, September 29, 1998
2001 was one of my biggest travel years ever. It was a year that I decided
to visit some of the world's world great antiquities including those in
China, Egypt, Peru, Thailand, Myanmar and Vietnam. China was the first leg
on the journey.
How many of us have wanted to visit China? I certainly did, and when the
opportunity availed itself in March 2001 there I went. I was already in
Hawaii anyway and I was excited about going farther. Not only was China the
center of a great and ancient civilization, it was a land with a deep
history of African contributions, and me being a man with a keen interest in
the global African presence, especially Asia, I felt that I simply had to
And so it was that, buoyed by the fact that the trip had been handled by an
African travel agency (I love to recycle Black dollars), I arrived, all
alone, in Beijing on March 4, 2001. Sure enough, sisters and brothers, it
was not long after landing in China that I found myself on the "Great Wall."
It was another dream come true--I was actually standing on the Great Wall of
China. But beyond the excitement of being there, how was it really?
Actually, I was not that impressed. I suppose that I had been spoiled by
Egypt and I've come to the conclusion that after you've visited Egypt a few
times everything else pales in comparison.
Indeed, since my first trip to Egypt in 1992 I have visited India's Taj
Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri and Pink City, mighty Angkor in Cambodia, Great
Zimbabwe in Southern Africa, Bagan in Myanmar, the rock churches in Lalibela,
Ethiopia, Cusco and Machu Picchu in Peru, and a whole lot more. And these
are impressive areas indeed but nothing really matches up to the pyramids,
tombs and temples of Egypt. But at least I could say that I was there--that
I stood on the Great Wall! Good for me.
Following the Great Wall I journeyed to the Ming Tombs, which I found
interesting but not really awe inspiring. But it was during my visit to the
Ming Tombs that something happened that in many ways set the tone for the
entire trip. People started to follow me! Both men and women, but especially
young women, started following me! Finally, I just stopped in my tracks and
asked my tour guide what was going on. He told me that my followers were in
admiration of me and thought that I must be some kind of celebrity! Well,
with that explanation handed to me I quickly calmed down and went about the
important business of sight seeing. But the people continued to follow me
and it soon got to the point where folks were shaking my hand and asking to
take photographs with me. Well, worse things have happened to me and I
pretty much took it in all in stride. But a lot more was to follow on my
Chinese odyssey and not all of it was as pleasant.
And so I got through my first day in China. I had had a long trip, checked
into a fabulous hotel, climbed China's Great Wall, visited the Ming Tombs
and been mistaken for a celebrity. All in a day's work in the life of Runoko
Rashidi, fast on his way to becoming a legend in his own mind. Next day,
fresh and relaxed I went to the Forbidden City. I remember a lot of things
about that second day. First, that it was cold and windy. Second, I found
not a scrap of litter on the streets. Third, that language was going to be a
big barrier. Fourth, I never saw any women in tight and revealing clothes.
And, perhaps more than important than all of the rest, I had not seen any
Black people yet--neither depiction nor actual person! There were none in
the Forbidden City, just as there had been none on the Great Wall or in the
Ming Tombs. So much for antiquity. And then it suddenly dawned on me that I
hadn't seen any in the hotel or in the restaurants or in the streets or
What was going on here? Trust me when I say that a brother was starting to
feel a little lonely.
Next day I visited the Temple of Heaven and the Lama Temple. I was impressed
with both places. And this was followed the next day with a trip to the Reed
Moat Bridge, the Summer Palace and Tianamen Square. I went to different
restaurants every day and the food was great. So far, pretty good. But
still, no Black folks! What could have happened to them I wondered? Wasn't
this the place where Chancellor Williams said that we were once powerful
enough to build a kingdom of our own? And didn't my brothers James E.
Brunson and Wayne B. Chandler document the existence of Black people here?
Hadn't Clyde Ahmed Winters done some pioneering work on the subject? And
hadn't Rev. James Marmaduke Boddy written about the African presence in
ancient China way back in 1905? And what about that 1998 DNA study that
concluded that most of the people of modern China had African genetic
origins? What was going on here? I was starting to feel confused.
Next day I took an excursion about 128 kilometers out of Beijing to visit
the East Qing Tombs. I thought that if I couldn't find Black people in
Beijing itself that I might have better luck elsewhere. The tombs were
splendid and it was well worth the journey, although I still had not found
what I was looking for. On the other hand, the people that I met that day
were said to be peasants of Manchu stock and they weren't friendly at all.
Indeed, for the first time on the trip I met folks who actually seemed cold
and even a little hostile. I didn't like it. When I asked my tour guides
what the local people were saying about me they just shrugged and requested
that I not worry about it. I liked it even less.
Well, I guess that you could say that by this time I had seen about enough
of Beijing and the surrounding areas and it was more than time to go. And so
away I went to city of Xi'an. You know the city--the one with the terra
cotta soldiers. I didn't see the soldiers that day but I did make a long
anticipated visit to the the Shaanxi Provincial Museum of History--said to
be China's best museum. What a disappointment! Not a sister or
brother--ancient or modern--in the place. Damn!
And then I went to the Tang Dynasty Museum. The Tang Dynasty represents one
of the great high points in Chinese history. But there was nothing that I
could say was distinctly Africoid in the Tang Museum! They even brought the
Museum Director himself out to meet me. I was told that it was his official
day off but when he heard that I was coming he showed up anyhow. He told me
that he was honored to meet me and that I was the first Black man to ever
visit the place. But when I asked him about African people in the history of
China I drew a complete blank. He claimed that he knew nothing about such a
possibility. At least he was consistent.
Of my three guides, all of whom professed great stores of knowledge
regarding early China, I could jar nothing loose from them regarding an
ancient African presence. At the same time, however, they all knew about the
anti-African riots that took place in China in the mid-1980s. I was
beginning to wonder if all of this, I mean the whole experience, was a kind
of dream or something.
The following day was my best in China! I went to the Banpo Neolithic
Village and drove past the the tomb of Emperor Qin Shi Huang, and finally
got to the museum of terra cotta soldiers and horses. They were magnificent
and represent another high point in Chinese history, and I was impressed by
the fact that both the tomb and soldiers and horses belonged to the same man
who began construction of the Great Wall, and thought that closest
comparison that I could make was to the great pyramid builders of Old
For lunch that day in Xi'an I went to another great restaurant followed by a
visit to an actual Chinese tea house. This time all of the waitresses paused
in their attention to the needs of the other diners to give me a peep and
even the chef came out of the kitchen to take a look. And, oh yes, by this
time I can seen a couple of African-American tourists and what appeared to
be an African diplomat and one of them actually talked to me! Wow!
The next two days I saw the Xi'an city walls, a Han tomb complex, a drum
tower and another museum. And I noticed a few other things too. It seemed
that the Chinese, in general, smoked like chimneys, that they were highly
disciplined, that there were lots of unemployed laborers, that there was a
great deal of industrial pollution and the skies always seemed hazy, that
there were many things to buy with aggressive vendors at every site, and
that the people as a whole seemed very proud to be Chinese.
Well sisters and brothers, my trip to China was coming to an end and I
suppose that it was just as well. I was glad that I went but I had found no
documentation of the African presence and had spent quite a lot of money in
my search. I suppose that I should have been better prepared but based on
all the work that had gone into my African Presence in Early Asia anthology
I really thought that it would have been a simple process with the African
imprint everywhere. It turned out to be far from the case. Even the
artifacts that I saw dating from the Shang Dynasty period did not seem
Africoid. At least they didn't to me.
And so, rather downcast, I returned to Beijing for one more night before an
early morning flight back to the United States. Settling down in Beijing's
Mandarin Hotel I got a fabulous suite and then went out in search of what I
hoped would be a really special meal before I departed the People's Republic
of China. But it did not turn out that way. As a matter of fact, I never did
get to eat that evening. The first two restaurants that I went to were in
the hotel itself. In the first one I waited about thirty minutes for service
and never having received any I simply got up and walked out. In the second
hotel restaurant I felt distinctly unwelcome. I don't believe in spending
money where I don't feel comfortable and so I soon left that place too. And
then I walked around the block thinking that I would have more success
outside of the hotel. But the result was just more of the same. At one
restaurant that I stopped at I was quickly ushered in with a smile and what
be words of welcome. But then all of a sudden all of the waitresses started
to giggle and laugh and I soon got the heck out of there too.
Sisters and brothers, I was livid! I not only let the front desk at the
Mandarin Hotel have it at what I considered my overall rude treatment at the
hands of the Chinese but I had plenty of venom left for my tour guides the
next morning too. All they could do was tell me how sorry they were and
rather lamely explain that the local people were just not used to seeing
Black folks. And so I blasted them some more.
So I guess that you could say that my trip to China was a kind of bitter
sweet affair. I am glad that I had gone because there is nothing like seeing
it for yourself. And many of the monuments that I saw there were indeed
impressive. But I left China thinking that I would never go there again and
I could not help wondering again and again about what happened to all of the
Black people in China.
*Runoko Rashidi is a historian and world traveler engaged in a life long
love affair with Africa. He is very active Online and is the editor, with
Dr. Ivan Van Sertima, of the African Presence in Early Asia. Runoko is
currently coordinating an educational-cultural tour to Peru in November 2004
entitled "Looking at Peru through African Eyes."
For information on the tour and/or to follow Runoko's doings please visit
his award winning Global African Presence Web Site at
GLOBAL AFRICAN COMMUNITY TRAVEL
PERU THROUGH AFRICAN EYES--A BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY
BY RUNOKO RASHIDI*
DEDICATED TO THE IMMORTAL SPIRIT OF FRANCISCO CONGO
As I am now a few days between international trips I thought that it
might be a good idea to take the time to write another travel note. And
since I will taking my first tour group to Peru come November 2004 this
seems like the perfect opportunity for me to post a brief summary of my 2001
trip there. Believe it or not, there is an African presence in Peru. Indeed,
unlike some travelers and scholars, I would contend that, with the exception
of Brazil, the African presence in Latin America is not invisible, it simply
has not been sufficiently explored and documented.
As a bit of background, I can tell you that I first remember becoming aware
of the African presence in Peru about twenty years ago. I was watching a
weight lifting competition during the Olympic Games when I noticed a Black
man on the Peruvian team. My first reaction was, Wow! We really are
But the big revelation came in July 1999 as a participant and keynote
speaker at the Second International Reunion of the African Family in Latin
America. This was a truly historic gathering and was held in the Maroon
community of San Jose de Barlovento, Venezuela. The theme of the Reunion was
"People with an Ancient Past Working in the Present for a Glorious Future."
The Reunion was sponsored by Afro America XXI and lasted for a week. It was
both one of the greatest events that I have ever participated in and one of
my finest hours. All of the forums were wonderful and while doing the
presentations I was in top form. During the height of the Conference I did
keynote presentations on three consecutive nights. The first presentation
was on the "African Presence in America before Columbus." The second was on
"Ancient African Empires." And the third and biggest of them all was
entitled, "Unexpected Faces in Unexpected Places: The Global African
Presence." I will never forget how after the last presentation the various
national delegations lined up to shake my hand and have take their
photographs taken with me. And then the very last delegate and the oldest
person in attendance, a small Black woman from Jamaica, walked up with great
dignity and embraced me and told how proud "your mother is of you." We were
both overcome with emotion and I confess that I cried for a long time that
This Reunion brought together African people from as far away as Ethiopia
but the vast majority of the attendees were Africans from the Western
Hemisphere. Indeed, from North America came African people from Canada, the
United States, Mexico and the Caribbean. From Central America came Africans
from Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama. And from South
America itself emerged sisters and brothers from Bolivia, Ecuador, Brazil,
Guyana, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Columbia and the host nation
Venezuela, and Peru.
Perhaps the most remarkable thing about the Reunion was the revelation that
many of these sisters and brothers seemed completely unaware that African
people lived in the neighboring countries. And this was the first time that
I met African people from Peru.
With this background in mind, for ten days in June 2001 I toured Peru and
found it to be a fascinating place. I had already been to Brazil, Venezuela
and Guyana but I was hungry for more and Peru was my first destination on
South America's western side. To begin with, the museums were excellent and
I was astounded by the Africoid features of many of the Moche portrait
vases. And the churches and cathedrals weren't bad either. First of all,
there were a lot of them and I was especially impressed with the Church and
Monastery of Santo Domingo with its life-sized statue of the black St.
Martin de Porres. And who could ever forget the sacred Urubamba Valley and
the mysterious city of Machu Picchu? And equally impressive, perhaps even
more so, were the ceremonial centers of Sacsayhuaman and the ancient urban
complex of Ollantaytambo.
THE AFRICAN PRESENCE IN ANCIENT PERU
Contrary to popular belief, the first Africans to come to Peru did not come
as captives, that is enslaved people. Rather, the country that is now called
Peru in all likelihood became home to many of the first waves of Blacks who
crossed into the Western Hemipshere tens of thousands of years ago. We have
already found the bones of these ancient Blacks in Bolivia, Ecuador and
Brazil. Why would Peru be an exception? And then there is the Moche
Peru is probably the most archaeologically rich country in South America and
one of the most important phases of its history is the Moche period. The
Moche (or Mochica), a militaristic people little known to all but a few of
us, erected their empire along the Peruvian coast around 100 C.E. and were
not eclipsed for seven hundred years. They built their capital in the middle
of the desert around what is now the city of Trujillo. It featured the
enormous pyramid temples of the Huaca del Sol and Huaca de la Luna (The
temples of the Sun and the Moon). The Temple of the Sun, one of the most
impressive adobe structures ever built in the Western Hemisphere, was
composed of over a hundred million mud bricks.
The Moche roads and system of way stations are thought to have been an early
inspiration for the Inca network. The Moche increased the coastal population
with extensive irrigation projects and skillful engineering works were
carried out, such as the La Cumbre canal, still in use today, and the Ascope
aqueduct, both on the Chicama River.
Perhaps the greatest achievement of the Moche was their art, especially
their amazingly life like portrait vases. In June 2001 I managed to view a
number of these Moche pieces in the Lima museums, many of them so Africoid
that I thought that they could have easily been manufactured in the Congo. I
am talking here about vase after vase after vase. Indeed, based on this
artistic evidence alone one could say that the Moche are among ancient
America's best kept secrets.
AFRICANS IN COLONIAL PERU
Although some Africans came to Peru with the Spanish invaders as soldiers
and translators, beginning in the sixteenth century significant numbers of
enslaved Africans were being taken to Peru. During the 1550s there were an
estimated three thousand enslaved Africans in Peru, about half of them
residing in Lima. And wherever there are enslaved people one can also find
slave resistance. Colonial Peru is no exception here and the one name that
seems to most personify that resistance is Francisco Congo. He must have
been extraordinary man and I am trying diligently to find information on
Because of its geography and the fact that Peru was not on the direct
colonial slave trade routes (mostly on the Atlantic Ocean) the majority of
Africans in Peru were not brought over directly from Africa but were bought
from the British, Dutch and Portuguese after they were already in the
Americas. Even under the background of poverty and enslavement, however,
some of these Africans achieved great distinction. One such person was
Martin de Porres.
Martin de Porres, eventually to become St. Martin de Porres, was born
December 9, 1579 in Lima, Peru. He was the son of a Spanish nobleman and a
freed African slave mother. At age eleven, he became a servant in the
Dominican priory. Promoted to almoner, he begged for more than $2,000.00 a
week from the rich to support the poor and sick of Lima. Placed in charge of
the Dominican's infirmary Martin became famous for his "tender care of the
sick and for his spectacular cures." Because of him the Dominicans dropped
the stipulation that "no black person may be received to the holy habit or
profession of our order" and Martin took his vows as a Dominican brother.
For Lima's poor Martin de Porres established both an orphanage and a
children's hospital. And, interestingly enough, he set up a shelter for
stray dogs and cats and nursed them back to health. He lived in self-imposed
austerity, never ate meat, fasted continuously, and spent much time in
meditation and prayer.
In 1639 Martin de Porres died of fever. He has been venerated since the day
of his death. He was beatified in 1873 and canonized on May 16, 1962. He is
the first African-American saint.
AFRICANS IN PERU TODAY
Today, the African presence in Peru numbers about two million people out of
a total population of about twenty-three million. During my visit, however,
I saw only a handful of these sisters and brothers. I did manage, with some
expenditure of effort, though, to find one African taxi driver, brother
Enrique. Unfortunately, the only words of English that brother Enrique ever
uttered were "Black power" but that was enough for me to hire him. I saw no
Africans working in the airport, in the markets, in the museums, in the
banks, in the hotels or on TV.
So, the reports of pervasive and rampant anti-African racism in Peru will
not come as much of a surprise to us. What else is new? According to one
account, "It is systematic and permanent. It goes from patronizing attitudes
to outright discrimination: blacks are dirty, thieves, all the stereotypes."
In August 1996 New York Times correspondent Calvin Sims documented some of
the racial bias directed against Africans in Peru, pointing out that:
"Although nightclubs feature Afro-Peruvian musical groups and a third of
Peruvian soccer players are black, the number of black professionals is
estimated at fewer than 400, and there are no black executives of Peruvian
companies, no blacks in the diplomatic corps, judiciary, or the high ranks
of the clergy or military. The country's even smaller Japanese community has
produced the current President, but no black politician has risen even as
far as Congress.
While incidents of open discrimination are far less common in Peru than in
the United States and Brazil, which has the largest black population in
Latin America, Peruvian blacks say they encounter racism daily.
In public, they say, they are frequently called derogatory names like `son
of coal' or `smokeball.' At job interviews, they say, they are often told
that their experience and references are excellent but that the owners are
looking to hire people with `good presence'-- a euphemism for someone who is
RETURN TO PERU
In spite of all that, perhaps even because of it, I tell you now that I am
looking forward to returning to Peru in November 2004 and I want to take you
with me. I want to see a lot more of the Moche and their marvelous portrait
vases. And this time I will be visiting both the Temple of the Sun and the
Temple of the Moon. And I am going to enter more churches and cathedrals,
where I understand that in addition to statues of Black Saints there are
depictions of Black Christs as well. And this time I will be accompanied by
local African activists and will visit the African community of Chincha,
south of Lima. And, of course, I will be returning to Cusco and Machu Picchu
high in the Andes Mountains.
So come along with me. Join me and get your education. Come along with me as
we further document the global African presence and write one more chapter
in the greatest story never told.
May 10, 2004
*Runoko Rashidi is a traveler and historian engaged in a love affair with
African people. He is very active Online and is the moderator of the Global
African Presence egroup. He is currently coordinating an
educational-cultural tour to Peru scheduled for November 2004 entitled
"Looking at Peru through African Eyes."
For more information on Runoko and all of his travels please visit Runoko's
award winning Global African Presence Web Site at http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html
THE GLOBAL AFRICAN COMMUNITY
H I S T O R Y N O T E S
AFRICANISM AND CULTURE
(EXCERPT OF SPEECH GIVEN AT THE CONGRESS OF
By KWAME NKRUMAH
(ACCRA, GHANA--DECEMBER 1962)
Posted by RUNOKO RASHIDI
"We have made our contribution to the fund of human knowledge by extending
the frontiers of art, culture and spiritual values."
-- Dr. Kwame Nkrumah
If we have lost touch with what our forefathers discovered and knew, this
has been due to the system of education to which we were introduced. This
system of education prepared us for a subservient role to Europe and things
European. It was directed at estranging us from our own cultures in order
the more effectively to serve a new and alien interest.
The central myth in the mythology surrounding Africa is that of the denial
that we are a historical people.
It is said that whereas other continents have shaped history and determined
its course, Africa has stood still, held down by inertia. Africa, it is
said, entered history only as a result of European contact.
Its history, therefore, is widely felt to be an extension of European
history. Hegel's authority was lent to this a-historical hypothesis
concerning Africa. And apologists of colonialism and imperialism lost little
time in seizing upon it and writing wildly about it to their heart's
To those who say that there is no documentary source for that period of
African history which pre-dates the European contact, modern research has a
crushing answer. We know that we were not without a tradition of
historiography, and, that this is so, is now the verdict of true Africanists.
African historians, by the end of the 15th century, had a tradition of
recorded history, and certainly by the time when Mohamud al-Kati wrote
Tarikh al-Fattash. This tradition was incidentally much, much wider than
that of the Timbuktu school of historians, and our own Institute of African
Studies here at this University, is bringing to light several chronicles
relating to the history of Northern Ghana.
The Chinese, too, during the T'ang dynasty (AD.
618-907), published their earliest major records of Africa. In the 18th
century, scholarship connected Egypt with China; but Chinese acquaintance
with Africa was not only confined to knowledge of Egypt. They had detailed
knowledge of Somaliland, Madagascar and Zanzibar and made extensive visits
to other parts of Africa.
The European exploration of Africa reached its height in the 19th century.
What is unfortunate, however, is the fact that much of the discovery was
given a subjective instead of an objective interpretation. In the
regeneration of learning which is taking place in our universities and in
other institutions of higher learning, we are treated as subjects and not
They forget that we are a historic people responsible for our unique forms
of language, culture and society.
It is therefore proper and fitting that a Congress of Africanists should
take place in Africa and that the concept of Africanism should devolve from
and be animated by that Congress.
Between ancient times and the 16th century, some European scholars forgot
what their predecessors in African Studies had known. This amnesia, this
regrettable loss of interest in the power of the African mind, deepened with
growth of interest in the economic exploitation of Africa. It is no wonder
that the Portuguese were erroneously credited with having erected the stone
fortress of Mashonaland which, even when Barbossa, cousin of Magellan, first
visited them, were ruins of long standing.
Hebrew (Y vs. H, Jewish vs. Hamitic)
chief vernacular of Ashkenazic Jews, who are native to, or who have
antecedents in, eastern and central Europe.
One of the Germanic languages, Yiddish is written in Hebrew characters (some
of them used differently than for writing Hebrew).
Yiddish (meaning "Jewish") arose between the 9th and 12th centuries in
southwestern Germany as an adaptation of Middle High German dialects to the
special needs of Jews. To the original German were added those Hebrew words
that pertained to Jewish religious life. Later, when the bulk of European
Jewry moved eastward into areas occupied predominantly by Slavic-speaking
peoples, some Slavic influences were acquired. The vocabulary of the Yiddish
spoken in eastern Europe during recent times comprised about 85 percent
German, 10 percent Hebrew, and 5 percent Slavic, with traces of Romanian,
French, and other elements. Many English words and phrases entered Yiddish,
becoming an integral part of the language as it is spoken in the U.S. and
other English-speaking countries. Apart from vocabulary changes, modern
Yiddish differs from modern German mainly in the simplification of inflections
and syntax, the acquisition of a few grammatical traits influenced by Slavic
speech, and its looser pronunciation of Germanic words. Yiddish pronunciation
was also significantly influenced by Slavic languages. In its word formation
and use of auxiliary verbs Yiddish is similar to English, which also is a
Germanic language with a simplified grammar and a variously enriched
Yiddish exists in two groups of dialects, one of which is further subdivided.
The western dialect, with few speakers, is centered in German-speaking areas
of western Europe. The more widely distributed eastern group has a
northeastern branch and a southern branch. The northeastern branch includes
the Yiddish spoken in the Baltic countries and in the northwestern areas of
Russia, and by Jewish immigrants or descendants from those areas. The southern
branch-which has central and southeastern subgroups-includes the dialects
spoken in Poland, Romania, and Ukraine."
Microsoft® Encarta® 98 Encyclopedia. © 1993-1997 Microsoft Corporation
Jewish (Yiddish) translations and transliterations of Paleo Cushite Hebrew,
Phoenician, and Chaldee Hebrew form the basis of the religious beliefs of
millions of people worldwide. Yet Paleo Cushite Hebrew, Phoenician, and
Chaldee Hebrew was as foreign to the Jewish translators as Spanish is to
me—even though Spanish is written using the same alphabets used to write the
English that I speak. Thus is important to note that nothing can make people
deny and defy obvious truth more than religion. But thank God Almighty that
truth is, more often than not, independent of what we believe, or what our
religion has taught us to believe.
In a message dated 6/6/2003 12:28:17 AM Eastern Standard Time, EMANSMYRNA
6. Hebrew ceased to be spoken by the common people during the Babylonian
captivity. It was practically a "dead language" as early as B. C.
250. In the absence of expressed vowels, its pronunciation was likely to
become lost. So the Scribes took four consonants, "a h w and j," and
inserted them into the text to indicate the vowel sounds. While this device
helped to some extent, in the end it led to confusion, often raising the
question: "Is this letter a consonant, belonging to the original, or is it a
vowel-letter, added by the Scribes?" Moreover the insertion of these
vowel-letters did not prove sufficient; then, as late as 600-800 A. D., a
whole system of vowel-signs was added, most elaborately indicating the
vowels of each word as tradition had preserved it. These vowel-signs were
interlinear, and therefore did not confuse the text, as did the
vowel-letters. With vowel-signs we might indicate the pronunciation of Gen.
1:1, as given above, something like this (separating the words) :"
"Additionaly, the letters 'Y' and 'V' are frequently inserted in modern
unpointed Hebrew to make reading easier, this is called full pointing and
gives rise to alternate spellings. Foreign words are often partially pointed
to indicate the pronounciation. The rules of pointing are very strict and
complicated. They were introduced in the early Middle Ages to aid
pronounciation in a language that
largely died out in spoken form;
the Hebrew of the Bible and the Talmud is not pointed, though the later
Page 159-160, Hebrew Phrase Book and Dictionary, Berlitz
The first article tells us that, to save the Hebrew language from certain
death, the scribes inserted certain letters to point to a particular vowel
sound. Though that may have appeared as something new, it was only a new
version of an old pointing used when Hebrew was originally developed from the
theophoric Hamitic Ethiopian language. Thus to save at least a written form
of Hebrew, the scribes had to revert back to the roots of the language. For
instance, most Hebrew scholars mistakenly interpret YHWH to mean Yahweh. The
truth is that the 'Y' points to the vowel sound 'E' and the 'W' points to the
vowel sound 'U'. Thus the true interpretation of YHWH is He-hu. The God was
called He-hu and the people who worshipped the God were called He-hu-ba-ru.
One of the original Hamitic Ethiopian names for Jehovah was He-hu-ba. I can't
be sure of how the 'B' sound became 'V', but surely that was one of the
original Hamitic Ethiopian names for Jehovah. In Exodus 6:3, we learned that
God was not known to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as Jehovah, but as God
Almighty. That tells us that the most original name of the God of the Hebrews
was simply He. Remember that, in the theophoric Hamitic Ethiopian language,
He meant infinite, which also means unlimited and almighty.
During the Babylonian captivity of Israel, many Indo-European members of the
Middle-East Hebrew family were assimilated into Babylonian society. After the
captivity, many of those who had been assimilated migrated towards western
Europe—while those who kept the faith written in Cushite Hebrew went back to
build the temple in Jerusalem (originally known in Pale Cushite Hebrew as
Heru-sa-tem). The Indo-European members of the Hebrew family that traveled
westward came under the influence of the Germanic languages. Thus the new
language that was being developed in Babylon by assimilated Indo-European
Hebrews became the Germanic language now known as Yiddish, or the Jewish
language. Therefore, in a European dominated world, these Yiddish speaking
people became the people the world turned to for the purpose of translating
Paleo Cushite, Phoenician, and Chaldee Hebrew. Thus the Jews became the
world's leading authorities in such translations and transliterations.
Starting with YHWH and YHWS', let us take a look at how the Yiddish speaking
people developed their translations and transliterations of Paleo Cushite,
Phoenician, and Chaldee Hebrew:
Note, in the picture above, that the letters are written from right to left.
But when using English alpha bets written from left to right, it reads YHWH
and YHWS'. As stated earlier, pointing to vowel was present in Paleo Cushite,
Phoenician, and Chaldee Hebrew long before the Yiddish form of pointing was
developed. Thus, in YHWH, the Y pointed to an E sound and the W pointed to
the U sound, and in Paleo Hebrew, the name was pronounced He-hu. Though the
Yiddish translators had some knowledge of the ancient system of pointing
borrowed from the Hieroglyphs of the Hamitic language, they translated YHWH as
Yahweh. Now let us take a look at YHWS', the Hebrew name Jesus gave himself.
Note that it contains a W that would point to an U sound after the S. The
last letter ' is , which is ayin, a guttural sound that is generally
transliterated as an A sound. The use of guttural sounds as vowels and
glottal stops also derived from the Hamitic language of the hieroglyphs. YHWS'
also contains an S, which was mistakenly interpreted to be an SH sound. That
is easily understood when we see the Hebrew letters for S and SH, = sin = S, =
shin = SH. The position of the dot that distinguish between the S and SH was
not present in the Hebrew of the time of Jesus. Yet many Yiddish translators
translated YHWS' to be Yahshua and sometimes Yehshua or Yeshua. But what
happened to , the W? Note that it is used in YHWH to yield Yahweh, but
is not used likewise in YHWS'. In YHWS', they reverted back to the ancient
system of using W to point to a U sound. Thus the S (which some interpret to
be SH) is followed by a U. Some Yiddish translators tried to tried to cover
up not using W in YHWS' as it is used in YHWH by translating YHWS' to be
Yahushua. Such a translation of W could have only come from someone who knew
that W was originally used to point to U sound in the Hu of He-hu (YHWH).
Therefore, it should be clear that the name Jesus gave himself was He-sa or
He-u-sa, which, in the Hebrew of his day, could have been interpreted as Eesua—seeing
that , the Hebrew letter for H, was also used for an E sound. That is also
the reason why the Arabic transliteration of the name Jesus gave himself is
found written as both Eesa and Esa. Using Shua in the translation Yahshua or
Yahushua no doubt derived from efforts to clearly identify Jesus with being
the Messiah, which derive from the Hamitic term Maa-shua.
By: Emmanuel Afraka
THE HAMITIC ETHIOPIANS
WHERE DID THEY COME FROM?
Though all sort of tropical plants and flowers may have grown there 7,500
years ago, today the Garden of Eden is not a garden at all. It is a rather
harsh land that on the eastern border of the greatest swamp on earth called
the Sudd. The Sudd is the physically manifestation of Nu, the watery mass of
Creation. Since the Sudd is quite possibly the watery mass in which all life
on earth began, it could truthfully be said that the Hamitic Ethiopians came
out of the watery mass of Creation where all life began. The Garden of Eden
is also known as the land of the Nuer tribe-situated in southwest Sudan and
west of present day Ethiopia. Even until today, the Nuer still adorn their
huts with the watery hieroglyphic symbol for Nu-as well as other symbols that
were used in the development of the original Hamitic Ethiopian hieroglyphs.
The Nuer also hold an important clue as to what is the actual object that
symbolizes Neter. Neter implies God on earth or God that came out of Nu to
reign on earth, which the Hamitic Ethiopians no doubt pronounced as Nu-te-ra
or Nu-te-ru instead of Neter. There are many Egyptologists who believe that
the symbol for Neter is an axe. Recently a few Egyptologists have form the
opinion that it is actually a roll of cloth attached to a stick or handle.
The latter opinion is much closer to the truth. The Nuer had a custom of
adorning their huts with distinctive ornaments that served as the family-crest
of a given family. The Hamitic Ethiopians adopted this custom to identify the
hut of God on earth (Heru) and also the huts of the sons of God (the direct
descendants of Heru). Only the Hamitic Ethiopians used a roll of cloth
attached to a pole to fly over the hut as a flag. They were perhaps the
inventors of the first flag used to identify a king or kingdom.
From a land east of the Garden of Eden, armed with the Gospel of Heru, the
twelve Hamitic Ethiopian tribes of Heru set out to propagate his gospel around
the world (Genesis 3:24 and 4:16). South they traveled into Central Africa
and possibly even South Africa. East they traveled into Ethiopia, Kenya,
Tanzania, Yemen, Oman, India, Sri Lanka, and the Bay of Bengal. North they
traveled into Nubia, Egypt, and the Middle-East. I don't find much evidence
of them traveling west. All I've found is God warning Adam (or Heru) to stay
on the east border because of a prophesied evil that would develop among his
seed in the west (Page 35, Forgotten Books of Eden). This was no doubt a
prophecy of African people being brought to the Americas as slaves and,
afterward, becoming apart of the evil system of their slave masters and
equally wicked and ungodly.
HOW DID THEY LOOK?
In Genesis 6:4, Moses tells us that the sons of God were giants. In
Deuteronomy 3:11, he tells us that King Og was the last of these giant Hamitic
Ethiopians to be found in the Middle-East. The giant Hamitic Ethiopians were
no doubt the product of marriages between Dinka, Nuer, Hamar, Moru and perhaps
even Shilluk, which no doubt went on for thousands of years before producing
Heru, as the genetic perfection of all their best genetic contributions.
Rwanda and Burundi provides us with a living picture of the physical
appearance of the ancient Hamitic Ethiopians.
"History textbooks might snub this connection. But we derived it
from the direct observation of our friends the Giant Watussi of Rwanda. And
these tallest, handsomest, keenest of all Africans, undoubtedly are the purest
"Surviving Pharaohs" on earth."
When and why the far ancestors of the Watussi left Ancient Egypt still is a
matter of speculation. How they managed to reach Rwanda and there to maintain
intact all the essential traits of their race, is another of the many question
marks presented by Central Africa.
At any rate, the incontrovertible fact is that there the Giant Watussi are, in
the middle of vast masses of Bantu natives, like a small unique island of
Pages 138-139, "Here Is Africa," Ellen and Attilio Gatti
THE HAMITIC CURSE
The giant Hamitic Ethiopians (Watutsi) of Rwanda and Burundi also give us a
living picture of the ungodly philosophy of racial superiority that spawn the
Hamitic curse that has ultimately fallen upon the entire Black race. Though
it is popular belief that the Watutsi only migrated from Ethiopia to Rwanda
and Burundi in the 14th or 15th century A.D., the truth is that Hamitic
Ethiopians have been living in that region of Central Africa for more than
7,000 years. Thus for thousands of years, the Watutsi, Hutu, and pygmies (Twa)
of the region lived in please-even to the point that many of the people now
classified as Watutsi are part Hutu and vice versa. Yet many of the Watutsi
retained the perfect physical Hamitic Ethiopian form of Heru (also known as
Osiris, the Lord of the Perfect Black). In search of another place on earth
were the Prefect Black could still be found in its purest form, many giant
Hamitic Ethiopians migrated from Ethiopia to Rwanda and Burundi in the 14th or
15th century A.D. They brought with them all the elements that were the
source of the Hamitic curse. They taught the resident giant Hamitic
Ethiopians that they were superior to their Hutu and Twa neighbors, and
therefore had a god given right to make these inferior people their servants
and slaves. Thus the recent conflicts between the Watutsi and Hutu, and the
Hutu genocidal campaigns against the Watutsi also give us a living picture of
God's wrath against the ungodly philosophy of racial superiority. The
ungodly philosophy of racial superiority introduced into Rwanda and Burundi by
a Hamitic Ethiopian faction and the servitude and slavery that accompanies it
is the same thing that certain Hamitic Ethiopia factions did in Egypt
thousands of years earlier. History repeats itself until someone sees the
truth and teaches the solution.
Genesis 9:21-25 tells us that a curse was placed on a descendant of Ham
because Ham laughed at the drunkenness and nakedness of his father Noah. The
truth of that story has more to do with a Hamitic Ethiopian faction that
promoted an ungodly philosophy of Hamitic Ethiopian racial superiority. Thus
they laughed at Noah's failed attempt to establish the Gospel of Heru and the
Divine Science therein among an inferior race of Oriental people that lived
along the Bay of Bengal. Since there is no such thing as a superior race or
an inferior race, a curse fell the descendants of Ham that has ultimately
fallen upon the entire Black race. However, it is important to note any and
all ungodly philosophies of racial superiority are eternally condemned no
matters who promotes it-as the Europeans will soon see.
As for the Black race, there is no need to despair. Jesus told us clearly
that our curse will be brought to an end. You are currently willing in the
time when Jesus' promises and prophecies concerning us will be fulfilled.
"And there shall be No More Curse: but the throne of God and
of the Lamb shall be in it; and his servants shall serve him:"
"And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take the
book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us
to God by thy blood [which is the Hamitic Ethiopian blood of Heru] out of
every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation;"
"And hast made us unto our God kings and priests: and we shall reign on the
It is truth that the Everlasting Gospel of Heru, which is currently being
restored, will redeem us out of kindred, tongue, people, and nation that have
held us in subhuman and inferior circumstances, as though we are an inferior
race of people. It is also true that it was God's plan that the sons and
daughters of Heru should reign on earth. But God's plan also includes the
spiritual sons and daughters of Heru and not just the biological ones.
Furthermore, God's plan to have the sons and daughters of Heru reign on earth
has nothing at all to do with a reign through force or military might.
Neither does it have anything to do with us subjugating other races of people
or any other ethnic or cultural group and making them our slaves. The reign
that God had in mind is a reign through service and example to humanity-the
most powerful and everlasting reign possible. As the firstborn of Creation
and the first loved of the Heavenly Father, it has always been the
responsibility of his sons and daughters to lead the rest of humanity into
path of self-realization and liberation. Self-realization is where and when a
human being can truly recognize his or her self as a forever-living son or
daughter of God himself.
THE HAMITIC ETHIOPIANS IN THE MIDDLE-EAST
Hamitic subfamily is generally considered to include ancient Egyptian and its
descendant, Coptic; the Berber languages; and the Cushitic languages. Ancient
Egyptian and Coptic are extinct. Some linguists also place the Chad languages
within the Hamitic subfamily. Those Hamitic tongues are or were spoken in N
Africa, much of the Sahara, the Horn of E Africa, and parts of central and W
Africa. They were named after Ham, the second son of the biblical Noah,
whose descendants supposedly were the original speakers of the Hamitic
Hundreds of years before the first Hamitic Ethiopian dynasty was established
in Memphis many of the Hamitic Ethiopian descendants of Heru had already
settled in the Middle-East. Once there, they established a holy city they
named Heru-sa-tem, which is known today as Jeru-sa-lem. Heru-sa-tem meant
that Heru's blood (or sons) were sealed in that land, and was therefore one of
the cities in heaven. Because the Cushites of Ethiopia and Nubia traveled to
the Middle-East with and after them, as members of the Hamitic language group,
it is sometime very difficult to tell where one group left off and the other
picked up. However, it is clear that the presents of both these groups in the
Middle-East as diversified dialects of a single language group is the source
of what is written in Genesis 11:1 concerning the entire earth having once
been one language.
The name Cushitic is derived from Cush, a son of Ham. The two principal
Cushitic languages are Oromo, the tongue of 20 million people in Ethiopia and
Kenya, and Somali, spoken by 9 million people in Somalia, Ethiopia, and
Djibouti. Among the many other Cushitic languages are Saho-Afar, Agau, Beja,
Burji, Geleba, Gimira, Janjero, Konso, Kaffa, Maji, and Sidamo. Oromo is
written in the Ethiopic script; Somali, in the Roman alphabet.
Though the author states that the Hamitic language was named after Ham and The
Cushitic after Cush, the true is that name Ham was used to associate one of
Noah's sons with Hamitic culture and Cush was used to associate one of his
later descendants with Cushite culture. Also note that the author states that
all the descendants of Noah spoke the same Hamitic language. Though Heru and
his more immediate descendants were the original speakers of the original
Hamitic language, the author's observation well help to disprove the belief
that Japheth was associated with Europeans or Indo-Europeans.
"Hamito-Semitic languages , family of languages spoken by more than 200
million people in N Africa; much of the Sahara; parts of E, central, and W
Africa; and W Asia (especially the Arabian peninsula, Iraq, Syria, Jordan,
Lebanon, and Israel). Since four of the Hamito-Semitic tongues, Arabic,
Hebrew, Coptic, and Syriac, are also respectively the languages of Islam,
Judaism, and two sects of the Christian faith, the language family reaches
many millions in addition to its native speakers.
Traditionally, the Hamito-Semitic language family is said to have two
subfamilies: Semitic and Hamitic. Although some scholars regard Hamitic and
Semitic as two distinct language families, they possess a number of
grammatical similarities and have a larger common vocabulary than borrowing
would account for. The most satisfactory explanation is that the Hamitic
and Semitic groups, despite their divergences, are subfamilies of a single
Hamito-Semitic linguistic family, as evidenced by their marked grammatical,
lexical, and phonological resemblances.
The languages of the Hamito-Semitic family are thought to have first been
spoken along the shores of the Red Sea.
Another theory holds that the Hamito-Semitic, or Afroasiatic, language family
came into being in Africa, for only in Africa are all its members found,
aside from some Semitic languages encountered in W Asia.
existence of the Semitic languages in W Asia is explained by assuming that the
Semites of Africa migrated from E Africa to W Asia in very ancient times.
At a later date, some Semites returned from Arabia to Africa."
About the very same time the Hamitic Ethiopian descendants of Heru were
establishing their first dynasty in Memphis his Hamitic Ethiopian descendants
in the Middle-East were laying the foundation for the first Babylonian
empire-north of Heru-sa-tem.
- warm, hot, and hence the south; also an Egyptian word meaning "black", the
youngest son of Noah…
One of the most important facts recorded in Gen. 10 is the foundation of the
earliest monarchy in Babylonia by Nimrod the grandson of Ham (6, 8, 10). The
primitive Babylonian empire was thus Hamitic, and of a cognate race with the
primitive inhabitants of Arabia and of Ethiopia. (See ACCAD ).
The race of Ham were the most energetic of all the descendants of Noah in the
early times of the post-diluvian world."
- the high land or mountains, a city in the land of Shinar. It has been
identified with the mounds of Akker Kuf, some 50 miles to the north of
Babylon; but this is doubtful. It was one of the cities of Nimrod's kingdom (Ge
10:10). It stood close to the Euphrates, opposite Sippara.
It is also the name of the country of which this city was the capital, namely,
northern or upper Babylonia. The Accadians who came from the
"mountains of the east," where the ark rested,
attained to a high degree of civilization. In the Babylonian inscriptions they
are called "the
and "the black faces," in contrast to "the white race" of Semitic descent.
invented the form of writing in pictorial hieroglyphics, and also the
in which they wrote many books partly on papyrus and partly on clay. The
Semitic Babylonians ("the white race"), or, as some scholars think, first the
Cushites, and afterwards, as a second immigration, the Semites, invaded and
conquered this country; and then the Accadian language ceased to be a spoken
language, although for the sake of its literary treasures it continued to be
studied by the educated classes of Babylonia."
Note that the author stated that the black face Hamitic Ethiopians of the
original Babylon came from the Mountains of the east, where the ark rested.
But Mt. Ararat is to the northwest of Babylon. So why are there two different
theories about where the ark came to rest? The Biblical version of the ark
coming to rest on Mt. Ararat is born out of a straight out lie told by
Indo-Europeans (probably of Aryan descent) to begin campaign of promoting
their ungodly philosophy of white supremacy. For what better way to propagate
such a philosophy than to convince Indo-European that they had received a
commission from God to replenish and rule the earth. It is too bad that Moses
didn't see the racism behind the Mt. Ararat lie, or someone else tampered with
his writings. Thank God Almighty that, before Moses, I AM. The other theory
that the ark came to rest on a mountain east of Babylon gave birth to the name
Hindu-Kush at a much later date. It may very well have resulted from a
comprise made the defenders of the Cushite legacy and Hindi speaking Aryans.
The key to understanding the truth is in remembering that the word Ham was
also associated with south. Though the story of Noah did indeed occur in the
east, it occurred much further east than Hindu-Kush, and was brought to the
Middle-East from the south by Hamitic Ethiopians.
A History of Racism and Terrorism, Rebellion and Overcoming;
published by Xlibris,
436 Walnut Street, 11 Floor
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106 U.S.A.
A HISTORY OF RACISM AND TERRORISM, REBELLION AND OVERCOMING
"The Faith, Power and Struggle of a People"
In these times when the questions and concerns about the right of
some to make symbolic statements (eg cross burnings, confederate flags,
ect..) is being debated and when historical trends of a dark era in
American history seems by some to be repeating, the book, "A History of
Racism and Terrorism, Rebellion and Overcoming," is one of the most
powerful books written on the origins and developoment of racism from
ancient times to the present and how retaliation, rebellion and
revolution against racism was crucial to saving the existance of Blacks
around the world. The book begins wih how and why racism or "color
consciouisness" or "varna" was invented in one particular nation that
has had a racist system intertwined with religion for over three
thousand years. It looks at how invaders from Eurasia invaded the
glorious Black Cushic Dravidian-Ethiopic civilization of the Indus
Valley and used the religion and culture of India's ancient Black
Negro-Australoid people to subjugate them. This series of invasions
began about 1700 B.C., the same time that the Hyksos and other
Eurasian/Semitic barbarians were infiltrating Egypt and the "Middle
Eastern" Black civilizations such as Sumer, Elam and Mesopotamia. These
invasions and genocide in India continued till the 300's B.C. (Read more
on this subject also from "Susu Economics: The History of Pan-African
Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth," pub. by
www.1stbooks.com also at
www.barnesandnoble.com One of the
most important figures in Black
Cushic-Ethiopian East Indian history between 500 to 300 B.C. was Gautama
Bhudda of the Sakya Clan who contributed to the upliftment of the
oppressed castes in India.
Racism as a factor during the Greek and Roman times was not as
devastating to Blacks in the Roman, Greek or the regions they had
contact with. In fact, both the Greeks and Romans saw the "Ethiopians"
(a term for all Black Africans) as the most accomplished people and as
the creators of culture and civilization. The Romans and Greeks were
more concerned about the Slavs, Celtics, Germanics and other Europeans.
In fact, the Romans refused to carry out a war with Nubia/Cush because
their warriors were devastating to the Romans. The Roman Garison at
Asan was destroyed by a Nubian Queen and the Roman statue was carried
off to Napata the Cushite capital (see
The book tracks the beginning of racism from the late Roman period in
Egypt when the Africans and others who refused to accept the Roman/Greek
version of Christianity were considered "infidels" or "pagan" a term
used today in the genocidal war against Africans carried out since the
600's A.D., by the Semites ("Arabs") in Sudan and other parts of Africa.
Racism throughout the writings of the Hebrews/Jews and those who
translated the Bible is carefull discussed in this great book. In fact,
the myth called "The Curse of Ham," (which was actually on Canaan, the
father of most Middle Eastern and Southern European "whites,"), was used
to justify the invasion, colonialist agenda and enslavement of Blacks by
the Europeans as well as the Semites. This idea of Blacks being slaves
of Shem and Japhet came from ancient corruptions of the Biblical
RACISM AND SLAVERY IN EUROPE/AMERICA AND THE REBELLIONS AGAINST IT
This great book takes a thorough look at how the English and other
Europeans designed a potent form of racism based on religion as well as
a system of surfdom that existed in Europe before African slavery. In
fact, the book points out that some of the same racist techniques used
on Africans, such as refusing to educate and punishing Blacks for
reading was used on Irish surfs in Britain and Ireland during the Middle
The enslavement of Black tribes and nations who were in the Americas
before Columbus is well explained based on expert research. This
finding uncovers a fact in European history, and that fact is that both
gold and Black slaves were being searched for by the early European
explorers. Those Blacks aboriginal to the Americas, Melanesia, Africa,
India and elsewhere who had Negroid features were targeted for
enslavement. Hence, millions of Blacks found in parts of the Americas
were enslaved even before Africans were brought to the Americas. Some
of these Black American nations such as the Waschitaw Nation, the Black
Californians, the Afro-Darienite of Panama, the Califu of the Caribbean,
the Choco of Colombia, the Black Caribs of Honduras/Central America and
the many Black Nations mentioned by I. Rafinesque in his work, "Black
Nations of America," (Friends Society, Philadelphia 1833), were owners
of lands in the Americas. In fact, the Waschitaw Nation of the
Louisiana region still continues their fight for their lands to this
very day. For a complete reference on the ancient Black nations of the
Americas, see the book, "A History of the African-Olmecs," pub. by
1stbooks Library, 2595 Vernal Pike, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 U.S.A.
www.1stbooks.com also at
BLACK REBELLION AND REVOLT AGAINST SLAVERY
The book emphasizes and discusses the fact that from the time Africans
were put on slaveships, they revolted, escaped slavery and created their
own separate communities throughout the Americas. The revolution in
Haiti, the rebellions in Jamaica, Guyana, Cuba, Mexico, the Caribbean,
the Quilimbos in Brazil, the revolts throughout the Americas is
discussed in this great work.
The following speech was delivered by the AFRIKAN
& REPATRIATION TRUTH COMMISSION'S (AWRRTC) Co-Chair, Master Teacher H.M.
Maulana, 19 November, 2000, at the Accra Technical Training Centre, Accra,
Ghana West Africa. Excerpts of that speech are cut herein below.
IS AFRICA A DEBTOR OR CREDITOR CONTINENT???
HISTORICAL FACTS-Genesis of Man and Humanity:
Science, today, has
proven that the Creator created the first human being (homo-sapien) on
Earth in Africa. Fossil remains of Black Africoid peoples have been
found in East Africa by the renowned anthropologist family of Doctors
Richard and Mary Leakey. These fossil remains have been radio-carbon
dated at 3.5 million years (Time Magazine March 14, 1994, page 45).
According to the Leakeys, this ancient Africoid human was walking
upright like modern man (Dr. Mary Leakey, Serronghetti Plains, Tanzania
where Fossils remains were found). Humankind born around the Great
Lakes Region of Africa, almost on the Equator, is necessarily pigmented
and black. The 'Gloger Law' calls for warm-blooded animals to be
pigmented in a hot and humid climate (Dr. Diop, Civilization or
Barbarism, page 11, Lawrence Hill Book, 1991 USA). Also,
Palaeo-anthropological scientists have proven that the Black Africoid
race were the original people in Europe and Asia, from the Iberian
Peninsula (Spain & Portugal), to Lake Baykal in Russia's Siberia,
France, Austria, the Crimea (Southern Ukraine) and the Basin of Don
(South Central Russia) - Diop, Civilization or Barbarism, page 15; Dr.
Charles Finch III (M.D.), Echoes of the Old Darkland - Themes from the
African Eden, 1991, Kenti, Inc., USA. Racial differentiation, that
is, the coming of the Aryan-White European race, did not come about on
Earth until after the last Ice Age (Around 26,000 years Before
Present). The Palaeo-anthropological and genetical (scientific)
explanation for this race's genesis is that they are the product of a
mutation, coming from the Black Africoid genus during the last Ice
Age(Wurm 1 & 2 Ice Age). The geographical area of the world where this
evolutionary mutation took place was in Europe, Southern France, Spain
as well as the Caucasus Mountains of South west Asian.
For a better perspective and understanding of how the Aryan-White
race mutated out of the original Black Africoid race, please read: Dr.
Civilization or Barbarism, pages 11-25; Dr. Charles S. Finch 3rd.(M.D.),
Echoes of the Old Darkland, pages 1 through 57, and John Jackson, Man,
and Civilization, pages 16 - 28, Carol Publishing Group, 1990, N.Y. USA.
According to British anthropologist, Christopher Stringer, of
Britain's Natural History Museum: Africa is the only region that has
continuity of evolution from primitive to modern humans - first modern
Europeans and Asians do not show up before 40,000 years Before Present
(B.P) -Times Magazine, March 14, 1994). Also, geneticist, Dr. Luigi
Cavelli Sforza of Stanford University California, USA, states that the
Caucasoid (Aryan White) and Mongloid (Yellow race), did not come into
existence until about 26 thousand (26,000) years ago. They are both
products of the Black Africoid race's mutation during the last Ice Age
(Dr. Luigi Luca Cavalli Storza, New York Times Newspaper, July 27,
1993: article entitled - "A geneticist maps Ancient Migration."
Moreover, Newsweek Magazine USA and International, January 11, 1988,
published the results of a twenty years genetic research project under
the title: "Search for Eve". The front cover of this magazine and the
inside story revealed that 'Eve' was a small Black skinned woman,
dating back as far as 250 thousand years ago in Africa. Adam was
depicted as a Black man. The research analyis was done by extracting
the 'Mitochondrion DNA' from the female placenta of Black Africans,
Aryan-white, and the Mongloid yellow race as well all mixtures in
between. The black female was the oldest and strongest evidence amongst
the lot. Ancient Greek poet Hesiod writes - there once was a "golden
race." "All good things, "Hesoid writes, "were theirs. The Fruitful
earth poured forth her fruits unbidden in bondless plenty. In peaceful
ease they kept their lands with good abundance, rich in flocks and dear
to the immortals." The golden race were the blacks and the golden age
was the period before the arrival of the Whiteman. (Hesoid, Works and
Days, quoted in, John mansley Robinson, An Introduction to early Greek
philosophy (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1968, pp.12-12; from Paul L.
Guthrie, making of the Whiteman, page 22,1992, Beacon Communication,
San Diego, CA, USA) Around 15,000 years Before Present, interbreeding
between the Black Aficoid and the mutated Aryan-White European race
created the Chancellade man (prototype of the yellow race). This
contact was first made around the Caspian Sea area (Caucacus
Mountains), during the Reindeer Period in the Magdalenian-age (Diop,
Civilization or Barbarism, page 16)
BLACKS EARLY PRESENCE AROUND THE EARTH The Americas: It has been
proven by numerous scientists of various disciplines that the oldest
civilization known in the Americas, the Oldmec, was of Black Africoid
origin. The Oldmec was the parent culture and science of the Maya,
Aztec et al. This civilization flourished at least five thousand years
or beyond, Before the Christian Era (John Jackson, Man, God, and
Civilization, page 288). The Black Oldmec Civilization was
ethnologically connected to Africa's Nile Valley Civilization (Ancient
Kush, Nubia and Egypt, Diop, Nations, Negres et Culture, page 116).
They were noted in the Americas for their high order of Mathematics,
Pyramids and the Calendar.
extinction of these ancient Black Africoid peoples in Europe (6,000
years ago); Asia (2500 B.C.E._800B.C.E.) and the Americas (3,000
B.C.E.), has come about only as a result of the mutated Aryan-White
European race's barbaric assaults of genocide, against Black Africoid
Civilization in those regions. (Diop, Civilization or Babarism, page
19). Thus, many of the Black Africoid peoples who survived these
barbaric assaults, after centuries or even millenniums of fighting
against these invading hordes of Aryan-Whites, coming from the steppes
of the Caucasus Mountains; they were forced to flee back to their
ancestral Motherland Continent, Africa, for safety.
ANCIENT EGYPT: THE LIGHT OF THE WORLD - (EAST & WEST) Posterity should
thank and honor one European-American writer and researcher, Gerald
Massey (1828-1907), for such profound scholarship and honesty in
writing his book: Ancient Egypt: The Light of the World, First
Published 1907 - Again, published 1992 by Black Classic Press,
Baltimore, MD. 21203 USA. In this book, Massey shows indisputable
proof that Western and Eastern Civilizations, today, were founded and
are operating on the sciences and philosophy of Ancient Egypt, Above
all, Massey proves that Ancient Egypt was created by an all Black
Africoid people whose roots lead back to the interior of the African
Continent around the Great Lakes (Khui (twi) Land) taken from Massey's
"Book of the Beginning"). Ancient Egypt's true name was Kamaat -
spiritual people of Truth, Justice, Law, Order and Righteousness (from
Teacher Maulana's abstract, the Theft of African Civilization: And Its
Ramification Towards The Year 2001 A.D., Accra, 1997).
WORLD HISTORY LINKS
Blacked Out by White Wash
Scientists and Islamic Civilization
W. African Civilizations
MindStation X : Renaissance
Dr. Ivan Van Sertima
Italy - Italian Renaissance - Zoological studies
Re: For Sale: A DNA Test to Measure Racial Mix
Africans in Early Europe
The TRUE Black History Home Page
Crusades, Christianisation, and Colonisation West Africa
Greaves: Documenting The Truth In Film - Global Black News ...
African Contributions to World History
Sephardim and their History
The Iberian Golden Age, European Expansion
of Islamic Intolerence by Mark Silverberg
African American and Ancient Egyptians
ANCIENT AFRICA AND EARLY ROME
The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy - Chapter II
Great Homepage of Alexander, or
Something Like That
Alexander The Great - Links
Alexander the Great on the Web
the Great History Project
Alexander was Great
The Third Great Race War: The Moors
History Timelines on the Web ... The History
Information and facts about Cleopatra
History of Alexandria: Cleopatra
Cleopatra - Last Pharaoh of Egypt - Queen
Raising the lost city of Cleopatra
House of Ptolemy: Caesar, Cleopatra, & Marcus Antonius THE
KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND
The Moors in Europe
Latin American Muslim Unity: History of Islam in Latin America
Adolf Hitler Mein
Kampf by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler Table of Contents
Hitler's Jewish Soldiers
Adolf Hitler and The Holocaust
Hitler Was Not An Atheist
HITLER A ROTHSCHILD
The controversy of the occult reich
WALL STREET AND THE RISE OF HITLER
African Timelines Part II
Death of Hitler: The Full Story with New Evidence from Secret Russian Archives
Hitler's Rise to Power
The OMEGA File : HITLER ESCAPED
Henry the Navigator
Dr Edward Scobie: African Presence in Early Britian: Dominica political figure
The African Presence in the Americas many centuries before Columbus
History of Lawful Gold and Silver
the Ambedkar Journal at http://www.dalitstan.org,
published by Thomas C. Mountain, 1997
The White tribes that invaded India and disrupted Black civilization
there are known as Aryans. The Aryans were not necessarily superior
warriors to the Blacks but they were aggesssive, developed
military technologies and glorified military virtues. After hundreds
years of intense martial conflict the Aryans succeeded in subjugating
most of northern India. Throughout the vanquished territories a
caste-segmented social order was established with the masses of
conquered Blacks (called Shudras) essentially reduced to slaves to the
Whites and imposed upon for service in any capacity required by their
White conquerors. This vicious new world order was cold-bloodely
racist, with the Whites on top, the mixed races in the middle, and the
overwhelming majority of Black people on the very bottom. In fact,
Aryan term varna, denoting one's societal status and used
interchangeably with caste, literally means color or complexion and
reflects a prevalent racial hierarchy. Truly, India is still a racist
country. White supremacist David Duke claimed "that his 1970's
India was a turning point in his views on the superiority of the White
Caste law in India, based originally on race, regulated all aspects of
life, including marriage, diet, education, place of residence and
occupation. This is not to deny that there were certain elements of
Black aristocracy that managed to gain prominence in the dominant
social structure. The masses of conquered Black people, however, were
regarded by the Whites as Untruth itself. The Whites claimed to have
emerged from the mouth of God; the Blacks, on the other hand, were
to have emerged from the feet of God. This was the ugly reality for
Black masses in conquered India. It was written that:
"A Sudra [Black] who intentially reviles twice-born men [Whites] by
criminal abuse, or criminally assaults them with blows, shall be
deprived of the limb with which he offends. If he has criminal
intercourse with an Aryan woman, his organ shall be cut off, and all
property confiscated. If the woman has a protector, the Sudra shall
executed. If he listens intentionally to a recitation of the Veda [a
traditional Hindu religious text], his tonque shall be cut out. If he
commits them to memory his body shall be split in half."
Servitude to Whites became the basis of the lives of the Black people
of India for generation after generation after generation. With the
passage of time, this brutally harsh, color-oriented, racially-based
caste system became the foundation of the religion that is now
throughout all India. This is the religion known as Hinduism."
"THE BLACK UNTOUCHABLES OF INDIA: THE WORLD'S
MOST OPPRESSED PEOPLE"
The greatest victims of Hinduism have been the Untouchables. Indeed,
probably the most substantial percentage of all the Black people of
can be identified among India's 160 Untouchables. These people are
long-suffering descendants of Aryan-Sudra unions and native Black
populations who retreated into the hinterlands of India in their
to escape the advancing Aryan sphere of influence to which they
ultimately succumbed. India's Untouchables number more than the
combined populations of England, France, Belgium and Spain.
The existence of Untouchability has been justified within the context
of Hindu religious thought as the ultimate and logical extensions of
Karma and rebirth. Indus believe that persons are born Untouchables
because of the accumulation of sins in previous lives. Hindu texts
describe these people as foul and loathsome, and any physical contact
with them was regarded as polluting.
Untouchables were usually forced to live in pitiful little settlements
on the outskirts of Hindu communities. During certain periods in
history Untouchables were only allowed to enter the adjoining Hindu
communities at night. Indeed, the Untouchables' very shadows were
considered polluting, and they were required to beat drums and make
noises to announce their approach. Untouchables had to attach brooms
their backs to erase any evidence of their presence. Cups were tied
around their necks to capture any spittle that might escape their lips
and contaminate roads and streets. Their meals were taken from broken
dishes. Their clothing was taking from corpses. They were
learn to read and write, and were prohibited from listening to any of
the traditional Hindu texts. Untouchables were denied access to
wells. They cound not use ornaments and were not allowed to enter
temples. The primary work of Untouchables included scavenging and
street sweeping, emptying toilets, the public execution of criminals,
the disposal of dead animals and human corpses, and the clean-up of
cremation grounds. The daily life of the Untouchable was filled with
degradation, deprivation and humiliation.
The basis status of India's Untouchables has changed littled since
ancient times, and it has recently been observed that "Caste Hindus do
not allow Untouchables to wear shoes, ride bicycles, use umbrellas or
hold their heads up while walking in the street." Untouchables in
India are crowded together in squalid slums, while in rural India,
the vast majority of Untouchables live, they are exploited as landless
agricultural laborers and ruled by terror and intimidation. As
of this, several cases from 1991 can be cited: On June 23, 1991
fourteen Untouchables were slaughtered in the estern state of Bihar.
August 10, 1991 six Untouchables were shot to death in the northern
state of Uttar Pradesh. On August 16, 1991, an Untouchable woman was
stripped in public and savagely beaten in the southern state of Andra
Pradesh. On September 6, 1991, in the western state of Maharastra, an
Untouchable policeman was killed for entering a Hindu temple.
Indian figures on violent crimes by caste Hindus against Untouchables
have averaged more than 10,000 cases per year, with the figures
continuing to rise. The Indian government listed 14,269 cases of
atrocities by caste Hindus against Untouchables in 1989 alone.
Indian human rights workers report that a large number of atrocities
against Untouchables, including beatings, gang-rapes, arson and
are never recorded. Even when charges are formally filed, justice for
Untouchables is rarely dispensed.